Carbon and its Compounds

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Carbon and its Compounds

Published by: Nuru

Published date: 06 Jul 2021

Carbon and its Compounds in Class 10 Science

Carbon and its Compounds

Compounds and its compounds carbon are defined as chemical substances containing carbon. More compounds of carbon exist than any other chemical element except for hydrogen. Organic carbon compounds are far more numerous than inorganic carbon compounds. In general bonds of carbon with other elements are covalent bonds.


Methane is a colourless, odourless, flammable gas that is the simplest hydrocarbon. It is the major constituent of natural gas and is released during the decomposition of plant or other organic compounds, as in marshes and coal mines. Methane is the first member of the alkane series.

Molecular formula: CH4

Structural formula:

Carbon and its Compounds


The five uses of Methane are:

  1. It is used to manufacture water gas or hydrogen gas.
  2. It is used in the form of LPG for domestic use.
  3. It is used for making printing ink.
  4. It is used for making Carbon Black needed for paints and in rubber industries.
  5. It is used as a gaseous fuel in industries and household works.


Ethane has many uses. It is the second most abundant component of natural gas that is commonly used in many homes. It is also used to produce a chemical called ethylene, which is a chemical needed in manufacturing products like plastic, automotive antifreeze, and detergent.

Molecular formula: C 2H6

Structural formula:

Carbon and its Compounds


  1. Used as gases fuel
  2. Preparing the organic compounds


In chemistry, alcohol is an organic compound that carries at least one hydroxyl functional group (−OH) bound to a saturated carbon atom. Organic compounds containing the hydroxyl group attached to saturated carbon atoms or hydrocarbon radicals are known as alcohol.

Ethyl –alcohol (C2H5OH)

Structural formula:

Carbon and its Compounds


By oxidation of glucose in the presence of yeast

C 2H12O6→ C2H5OH  + 2CO2

Physical properties of alcohol

  1. It is colourless liquid but has the taste
  2. It is soluble in water.
  3. Its boiling point is 780C and freezing point is -1140C.


The uses of alcohol are as follows:

  1. It is used for dry cleaning.
  2. It is used as an alcoholic beverage.
  3. It is used in making paint, varnish, medicine, synthetic rubber etc.

Glycerol (C3 H5(OH)3)

A sweet, syrupy liquid obtained from animal fats and oils or by the fermentation of glucose. It is used as a solvent, sweetener, and antifreeze and in making explosives and soaps. Glycerol consists of a propane molecule attached to three hydroxyls (OH) groups. Also called glycerin, glycerine. Chemical formula: C3H8O3.

Carbon and its Compounds

Physical properties

  1. Soluble in water
  2. Colourless viscous liquid
  3. Sweat taste


The uses of glycerol are as follows:

  1. It is used to make toilet soaps and cosmetic goods.
  2.  It is used to make printing inks and stamp pad inks.
  3. It is used for the preservation of tobacco, fruits and other edible substances.

Diethyl ether (C2H5 –O - C2H5)

Diethyl ether is a colourless, highly volatile flammable liquid. It is commonly used as a solvent in laboratories and as a starting fluid for some engines. It was formerly used as a general anaesthetic, until non-flammable drugs were developed, such as halothane. It has been used as a recreational drug to cause intoxication.

Carbon and its Compounds

Preparation: By heating the ethyl alcohol in the presence of conc. H2SO4 at 2700C

2C2H5 OH C2H5 –O - C2H5   + H2O

The physical properties of ether are:

  1. It is colourless volatile liquid with a pleasant smell.
  2. It is slightly soluble in water but readily soluble in alcohol.
  3. Its freezing point is -1160C and boiling point is 350C

The uses of ether are:

  1. It is used as a solvent.
  2. It is used as a cooling agent.
  3. It is used as purifying compounds by extracting.