Human Resource

Published by: Nuru

Published Date: 05 Dec 2021

Human Resource in Grade 8 Notes

Human resource

In this chapter, we discuss about the human resource, aspects of human resource, strategies to develop human resource, human resource in Nepal, and migration.

Human Resource

Human resource is the people who work for the organisation for performing the tasks given to them for the purpose of achievement of goals and objectives of the organisation which is possible only through proper recruitment. 

Human resources are the people who work for the organisation. Human resources are the company department charged with finding, screening, recruiting and training job applicants, as well as administering employee benefits programs.

These are the skills, energies, talents and knowledge of our people which can and should be used for the production of goods or the rendering of useful services. It also includes these skills, values and attitudes which contribute to the improvement of the quality of life in our environment.

Human capital' is sometimes used synonymous with human resources, although human capital typically refers to a more narrow view (i.e., the knowledge the individuals embody and can contribute to an organisation). Likewise, other terms sometimes used include 'manpower', 'talent', 'labour', or simply 'people'. So, we can say that those people who are educated, trained, skilled, experienced, energetic, physically healthy and mentally active, well-mannered and dedicated to their work are called human resources.

Skilled manpower is essential for the development of a country because they can produce maximum with the limited available resources. Only skilled manpower can do their work perfectly. Only a farmer can harvest crops perfectly. Only a businessman can do his work perfectly. So, it is necessary to have the skilled manpower in different fields for the development of a country.

Aspects of Human Resources:

1. Labour – Residents in a community provide the labour for work in the fields and factories. They clean the trenches and drains in the sugar cane fields and they provide the manual labour in the forest industry.

2. Skills – Specialized skills are needed for some jobs. A person who drives a vehicle or operates a machine needs special skills.

3. Technology- Advanced skills are often required to accomplish certain jobs. The making and repairing of a computer or television requires technical or engineering skills.

4. Capital – Finance or capital is important for investment purposes. Persons may have their own money or they may take loans.

5. Entrepreneurship- Persons investing in any business do take risks. Investors must therefore have the ability to manage their businesses.

6. Attitudes – Attitudes and values are just as important as the skills that people possess. Production cannot be at a maximum when workers do not demonstrate the right work ethics. Workers and employers must try to settle issues amicably through the trade union. Persons who are skilled or qualified should be willing to share their knowledge
and expertise.

7. Special talents- Besides advanced training persons often depend on their natural ability
or talent to perform certain jobs.

How to develop Human Resource? (Strategies to develop HR)

Certain conditions must be met as pre-requisties of development if maximum use is to be made of human resources. The authorities must provide the essential social facilities to help develop the human resources. Some of these are:

1. Health services:

The population must be strong and healthy. Persons who are ill cannot produce at a maximum. Severe illnesses can greatly hinder economic growth. A good health service must also take into consideration the special needs of those who are physically disabled, those who are blind and deaf or who have lost a limb. Institutions must also take into consideration those who
are mentally ill or retarded for one reason or the other.

Part of the health care must include the provision of health education. This will help people to practice good health habits and to care for their families. Parents must plan nutritious meals for their families and provide a balanced diet. Healthy habits include the avoidance of illicit drugs such as marijuana and cocaine. Alcohol and tobacco are also abused and persons can become addicted.

2. Education and Training:

In Guyana, education is provided at the Nursery, Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Levels. The highest level of education and training is provided at the University of Guyana. Besides specialized training at certain government institutions, ongoing training is often conducted by private companies. Education and training are important, since skills are developed.

Not only, with education you can bring changes, with the supply of training and practical works, they are possible. Training for manual work alone is not sufficient for certain industries since some jobs/professions require specialized skills and technology. Regardless of the type of education or training received, persons must be fitted for life in society. The application of education and skills is therefore of utmost importance.

3. Attitudes and values:

Academic education and training alone cannot lead to high production rates at the work place. Workers must also demonstrate good attitudes and values. Institutions involved in education must also emphasize the development of positive attitudes. The outcome of the people's work solely depends upon their attitudes and values inherited in them.

Maximum production would be difficult to achieve if workers are late for work or are frequently absent without a genuine reason. Employers must also provide suitable conditions for work and the right work atmosphere. The development of good attitudes begins at home, but the school, the church as well as other social institutions must also play their role.

In the context of Nepal (Human Resources in Nepal):

Nepal has not made enough development yet. It needs manpower such as farmer, doctor, pilot, journalist, engineer, mason, advocate, teacher, administrator etc. The important thing is how many skilled workers are required in a particular field. It is decided by the government. When it has been decided, the required number of manpower is produced by training them. Then they are appointed to perform the task in every field. Thus, the plan of development is carried out successfully.

But this does not happen in our country. The result is that the number of problems arises during the process. In some fields, the number of skilled workers is more than the actual requirement. Consequently, unemployment problem occurs. Similarly, lack of manpower is created in some other field. As a result, the development work is hindered.

The number of unemployed people is increasing day by day. Most people receive the only general education. They do not acquire skills. Some educated persons think it beneath their dignity to do a particular work. It should be remembered that no job or occupation is inferior. Work needs to be worshipped. When we work with this mentality, our village, town, district and country will prosper.

Migration:

Types of Migration:

  • Internal Migration
  • External Migration

Internal Migration:

This refers to the movement of people within the country. Often people move from one region to the next. They may go in search of work or they may go to where they feel it issafe and comfortable to live. Normally however persons tend to move to the towns or near to the towns. Persons generally feel that there are greater opportunities for jobs, education, etc. near the towns. Example; People from different parts of Nepal come to Kathmandu for study purposes, health check up purposes, job and many reasons.

Movement to the towns can lead to a strain on housing and social facilities and slum areas can develop. This has led to a counter movement and the tendency is for people to move out of the city center and reside in residential areas on the outskirts of the town.

External Migration:

This refers to the movement of people to live permanently in another country.Many Nepalies migrate to international countries like America, Germany, India, etc.

Emigration refers to the movement of people from the country. Immigration refers to the movement of people into the country.

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