Published by: Nuru

Published Date: 08 Dec 2021

Demography in Grade 8 Social Studies, Reference Notes


In this chapter, we discuss about the concepts of demography, and components of demography. Reference Notes of Grade 8 Social Studies.


Demography is the statistical study of human populations. The word demography is derived from two Greek words 'demos' and 'graphien'.

John Grount initiated the study of demography based on his work 'Natural and Political Observation Made upon the Bills of Mortality' in 1662. Therefore, he was considered as the Father of Demography. However the word 'demography' was first coined by Achille Guillard in his book Comparative Demography published in 1855.

Demos means people whereas graphien means to study. So, in simple words we can say that demography is the study of human population. Demography is the systematic and scientific study of the human population primarily with respect to size, structure, distribution and change (development).

Population change results from the interaction of demographic components, viz, birth, death and migration. Therefore, demography deals with the detailed study of the three components. With the measurement of such components, various aspects of the population are analyzed and interpreted. It helps to plan and implement various development activities.

Scope of Demography are as follows:

  1. Major Demographic Processes: - This includes fertility, mortality and migration.
  2. Population Statistics: - Population statistics helps to study birth rate, death rate, migration rate, population distribution, etc. of any place, district, region, zone or a country.
  3. Population Distribution: - The population distribution of any area has a particular pattern. Some places or region may have more population whereas some places or region may have less population. For example, the Terai region of Nepal has more population than Himalayan and hilly region of Nepal.
  4. Causes of Population Growth: - The causes of population growth are the major part of demography. The measures for the adverse effects caused by the population growth could be adopted only after knowing the causes of it.
  5. Consequences of Population Growth: - The population growth has created many problems in the world. Food, health, employment opportunities, education, housing, entertainment, etc. are affected due to rapid population growth.
  6. Sexual and Reproductive Health: - Physical structure of human and fecundity, contraceptives devices, subject matters related to sex, etc. come under sexual and reproductive health.
  7. Population Policies and Programmes: - Population policies and programmes are also the major part of demography.Every country has its own population policies and programmes.