Reproductive Health

Published by: Mandira

Published Date: 12 Jan 2022

Reproductive Health in Grade 9

Introduction and Concept of Reproductive Health

Health is fundamentally and intrinsically important to living a worthwhile human life. Good health itself is an end of all human endeavors. Health inhabits access to opportunities in education, work, income earning, political and cultural participation and other salient and value dimensions of human life. Good health has broadly and appropriately been defined as a condition of overall human well- being. But, the status of health is described and assessed here in relation to reproductive health. The Interrelation Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) program defined reproductive health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, but also imparting sound knowledge in all matters relating to the reproductive system and its function and process'.

Reproductive health is a condition when women and men enjoy a satisfying and safe sex and the capacity to reproduce offspring and the freedom to decide if, when and how often to do sex. All people have the right to access safe, effective, affordable family planning of their choice, as well as appropriate maternal care to ensure safe pregnancy and childbirth and bring up a healthy child. Such services will also help to protect women and men from HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections. Empowering women with knowledge and awareness about health is fundamental to achieving global health.

The reproductive health embraces human growth and development, mother and child care, human reproduction, immunization, nutrition, maternal mortality, family planning and other related activities. The aim of reproductive health is to improve the quality of life of the family. So, the concept of reproductive health was bought in light in 1994 A.D. from the international conference on population and development held in Cairo.

Aspects of Reproductive Health

Reproductive health includes the structure and functioning of the reproductive system. Besides, the physical and emotional changes associated with the development process come under reproductive health. The physical, mental and social well-being of a person is highly affected by reproductive process and nature of family.

Therefore, various aspects of life which are related to reproductive health and happy life are described below:

  1. Planning of family:A planning on handling and management of family income and resources to provide a happy life to family members is considered as planning of family. It deals with the sources of income and size of family, family education, age at marriage, number of children, use of contraceptives and other related aspects which help a family to achieve better and healthy living. Healthy and happy family life is only possible through the planning of family. So, its importance has been increasing day by day.
  2. Safe motherhood: It is an important aspect of reproductive health to provides safe maternal health. Five lakhs women die annually in average due to the problem associated with the delivery in the world. The major problems related to safe motherhood are caused due to early marriage and early pregnancy, uncontrolled birth, lack of child spacing and lack of education.
  3. Prevention and Treatment of problem aroused due to the abortion: Abortion is a social crime. It is an induced termination of pregnancy before the fetus has developed. The unsafe abortion may create various problems which may sometimes lead to maternal death. Thus, the prevention and control of abortion and treatment of problem aroused due to abortion. It is one of the reproductive health.
  4. Neonatal and Child Health Care: It is very important to take care of infant or child after birth. Neonatal and child health care is largely connected with reproductive health. If proper health care is given to the child or infant, it helps to decrease infant and child morbidity and mortality rate and their health problems too. We should provide nutritious food, love,balance diet, hygiene, and sanitation, timely and regular health check up, proper breastfeeding, etc to the infant and child. We should keep our environment clean. We should save them from minor accidents. The health of infant and child determines the reproductive health condition.
  5. Reproductive Tract Infections (RTIs): There are various types of diseases related with reproductive health and organ. A large number of people are affected by such diseases like reproductive tract infection, HIV, and AIDS, etc. Some of the sexual diseases are very hard to cure. People suffer from sexual diseases due to unsafe sexual behaviours and unhealthy sexual habit. If these diseases are not cured and prevented in time then there is a high chance of suffering from sterility, cervical cancer, prostate cancer etc. So, people should be aware of the sexual diseases and their effects. And to make people aware, reproductive health education would be the best idea.
  6. Infertility:Infertility is the inability of a person, men or women to reproduce by natural means. Infertility causes failure in the birth of the baby. The defects and improper functioning of reproductive organs related with husband and wife are responsible for infertility. According to the Mayo Clinic, USA, about 20% of cases of infertility cases are due to problems in man, 40% to 50% of cases of infertility are due to problems in women and 30% to 40% of cases of infertility are due to the problems related to both men and women. Some of the causes of infertility are sexually transmitted diseases, illegal drugs, abnormal semen, problems in the uterus or fallopian tubes, ovulation disorders, alcohol consumption, eating disorders,being obese or overweight etc. Many problems related to infertility can be solved if consults the fertility experts in time.
  7. Adolescent's Reproductive Health: Adolescents means the group of people of age between 10 to 19 years. Adolescents mean the age of change. There is physical, mental, social and emotional change. In this age, they are also involved in various sexual behaviours like premarital sex, unsafe sex, early pregnancy etc. It is an important aspect of reproductive health. So, adolescents should be aware of the reproductive health.Sexual and reproductive health for adolescents should be in priority.
  8. Reproductive Health of Adult Women: Women becomes infertile due to the menopause after crossing the age of 45 It causes various problems like cervical cancer, breast cancer, arthritis, osteoporosis, high blood pressure and also some psychological problems such as empty nest syndrome. So, adult women should be aware of this problems face after menopause. They should do regular health check- up.

Male Reproduction System

The ability to reproduce is one of the properties which distinguish living from non- living matter, the process is one of sexual reproduction in which the male and female organs differ anatomically and physiologically. The difference between male and female are due to the difference between the reproductive organ, testes and ovaries, which produce the reproductive cells, spermatozoa and ova respectively. These reproductive organs produce numerous minute spermatozoa to store them and to transfer them to the reproductive messages of the smaller number of eggs and to provide the young with a suitable place to grow and with nourishment during the early part of its life.

In man, as in all the higher animals, the function of reproduction is connected with special apparatus. The reproductive organs of male and female are customarily divided into internal and external genitalia. For descriptive purpose, the reproductive system is divided into main two parts, they are: Male reproductive system and Female reproductive system.

The male reproductive system consists of many organs. Some of these organs and their functions are given below:


Testes are the male gonads and called male reproductive glands. There are two testes in male situated in a pouch like structure and protected by a muscles called scrotum. The testes are connected with wide and coiled tube called epididymis which connects the testes with vas deferens.

Vas deferens

This is a straight tube about forty cm long which carries sperm to the urethra. There are two vas differentia connected with the epididymis of two testes.

Seminal vesicles

There are two seminal vesicles lying just below the urinary bladder. They secret mucus and a watery alkaline fluid that contains nutrients. Seminal vesicle empties its fluid that contains into the ejaculatory duct the process of ejaculation of sperms. Besides there are one prostrate and helps in neutralizing the acidity of sperms. Beside there are one prostate gland and helps in neutralizing the acidity of urine and keeps the sperms healthy.


The penis is made up involuntary and erectile tissues. It is covered by a layer of skin. It surrounds the urethra. The tip of penis is called glens penis. When the male is sexually excited this tissue fills with blood causing the penis to become erect. During sexual inter course ejaculation of the epididymis, vas deferens and the male accessory glands.

Menstruation and Sex and Reproductive Right

The process of flow of blood, along with unfertilized eggs through the vagina every month during their fertility period is called menstruation. This is also considered untouchable period in some communities. This process is controlled by cyclic secretion of hormones and repeats every month so it is called menstrual cycle. A menstrual cycle is of twenty eight days in an average though it varies slightly according to the health condition of females. The first day of menstruation is counted the first day of a menstrual cycle.

Menstruation is under the control of nervous system. The hypothalamus situated in the brain secrets Gonado- Trophin releasing hormone which stimulates the anterior pituitary gland for the secretion of follicle stimulating hormone and Luteinizing hormone (LH).

The follicle stimulating hormone and Luteinizing hormone stimulate the ovary cells for the formation and maturation of one follicle which consist of the ovum inside it. Besides, these hormones stimulate the secretion of Oestrogen and Progesterone in female's body. Oestrogen and progesterone help in the thickening of the inner wall of uterus or endometrium for the reception of fertilized eggs and its development. The thickening of endometrium starts immediately after the end of menstrual flow and becomes maximums during the middle of menstrual cycle. This is called proliferates. Thus, stage O estrogen and progesterone help in the formation of the wall of uterus to the thick layer of endometrium secretes a white sticky fluid until the period of mensuration and this phase is called secretary phase.

After ovulation the egg or ovum reaches the fallopian tube. In the meantime, if sperms reach the fallopian tube through the uterus by sexual intercourse, the fusion between sperm and ovum take place. The fusion of sperm and ovum is called fertilization. If the fertilization dose not commence within seventy two hours, then the fertilized egg degenerates. Fertilization of ovum in the fallopian tube helps to live the thick layer of endometrium but in absences of fertilization due to the hormonal influence, the thick endometrium bursts and the blood and unfertilized egg comes out through the vagina. This process of flow of blood along with the unfertilized egg is referred as menstruation. After mensuration the endometrium cleans up and secretion of hormones from pituitary gland begins a new menstrual cycle.

Factors to be considered during menstruation:

Menstruation is a natural process and controlled by hormonal changes in females. However, this process is associated with many problems in them. Some females experience the problems of stomach ache, backache, and overflow of blood, giddiness and sickness during the menstruation period. Due to the physical problems, they may go also get mental tension. So, it is important to consider the following measures during menstruation.

  1. Menstruation is a natural bodily process like growth and development. If someone has her first menstruation then she must discuss the matter with her friends and seniors to get the right information and advice.
  2. During physical pain, light exercises may be appropriate instead of a complete bed rest. Drinking hot liquids and treatment by hot water filled robber bag may help to reduce pain. In case of severe pain, painkiller may also be used.
  3. Females should not be considered as untouchable during this stage. They should get nutritious diet and stay hygienically with the family.
  4. Balance diet should be taken and spicy and oily food should be avoided.
  5. The genital organs should be cleaned after urination and regular bath should be taken as far as possible.
  6. Distant traveling and heavy exercises should be avoided. More rest should be taken during this period.

Sex and Reproductive Right

Reproductive process is a natural and biological phenomenon. But, it needs to be safe, protective and pro-motive for healthy living. The means and measures adopted for safe, protective and healthy reproductive are mentioned as sex and reproductive rights.

The international conference of human rights held at Tehran in 1968 A.D. has accepted that every couple must have the right to determine their family size and child's birth gap. It indicated that reproductive right has been considered similar to human right. The international conference on population and development held at Cairo in 1994 A.D. has brought the theme of reproductive rights in an organized form.

The sex and reproductive rights as brought forward by these two conventions are given in the following points:

  1. Right to survive: Women's life should not be at risk due to pregnancy and related causes.
  2. Right to individual freedom and security:People are independent to control their sex and reproductive health and enjoy their life without any discrimination.
  3. Right to equality: All people are equal to get the services of sex and reproductive health without any discrimination.
  4. Right to secrecy: People can take the services of sex and reproductive health in a secret way. Service providers should keep the entire matter secret.
  5. Right to independent view: Everybody has right to express their own view regarding the matter of sex and reproductive health without any influence from the religious and cultural practices.
  6. Right to freedom from coercion and related to sex and reproductive health:People should have right to get rid of the problems related of sex and reproductive health.
  7. Right to use the facilities of sex and reproductive health: People can use all the available scientific tools and technology for their welfare of reproductive health.
  8. Right to health care and security: People should have right to services on the matter related to health care and security.
  9. Right to information and education: Everyone should have the right to achieve information and education on sex and reproductive health.
  10. Right to decide on birth of babies: Everyone is free to decide on whether to produce children or not and number of children.

All the concerned agencies of our society should involve actively securing the sex and reproductive rights. We are free to decide on the aspects like age to marriage, the number of children to have, the gap between the children and the ways of living happy life. We got the information on these matters from schools, homes and different media like newspaper, radios, television, etc. When we use the knowledge gained from different sources in the matter related to various aspects of sex and reproductive health, than only it influences for happy and healthy life.

Safe Motherhood

Safe motherhood is considered as an important part of reproductive health. It includes various measures used to protect a mother from the problems related to pregnancy and delivery. A mother has to struggle for life while giving birth to a child. In this context, the International Convention on Population and Environment held in Cairo, the capital city of Egypt, has reported the death of annual five lakhs women in the world from the problems related to pregnancy in the decade of 1990. Moreover, a target is made to reduce this rate to 1. 25 lakh by 2015 A.D. Safe motherhood is the part of reproductive health and rights. It is the process of giving birth without any harm and injury during delivery and the cases done during pregnancy. In Nepal, many females die each year due to the complicated pregnancy and the problem of childbirth. To achieve this goal, mother's health should be made well. She should be provided with the nutritious diet. She should properly care in every respect of the complications. Safe motherhood is series of guidelines consequences during delivery.

It teaches us to perform the following aspects:

  1. The appropriate age of female to be pregnant from the point of view of safe motherhood.
  2. The way pregnant woman cares.
  3. The way to provide standard maternity care.

Safe motherhood begins before conception with proper nutrition and a healthy lifestyle and continues with appropriate prenatal care the prevention of complications when possible, and the early and effective treatment of complications.

The following services should be considered in safe motherhood

  • Imparting education on safe motherhood to women: Many parents and women of our country lack knowledge on the proper age for marriage and first conception age. Therefore, the mortality rate due to the complexity of pregnancy and delivery related cases are very high in our country. When women get pregnant before the age of twenty, then many hazards may lie in their health because they are reproductively immature to give a birth. Moreover, healthy women can give birth to a healthy baby so if the mother's health is not sound then obviously the baby's health becomes very poor. Many women are unaware about the advantages of the birth spacing and less number of children in a family. For mother's good health and providing proper care to the children, the family size should be maintained small by controlling birth. This sort of education to women can significantly improve the mother's health.
  • Improvement in mother's diet: A large number of women die each year in the world due to lack of nutritious diet during pregnancy period. In some countries, women are not provided nutritious diets such as milk, eggs, meat and other foods. As a result, the health of the other becomes worse and different deformities like childbirth with low weight and anemia appear. In order to minimize maternally and infant death, the mother should consume fruits, fish, meat and, green, vegetables, bean, milk products and other nutritious diets.
  • Delivery assistance in all the cases by a trained person: All the delivery cases should be assisted by the trained person like midwives available in hospitals. If delivery is made by untrained persons, then the health of both mother and child lives at risk. So, it is imperative to have safe delivery by trained persons for safe motherhood.
  • Counseling on family planning: It is important to educate women on family planning, means of contraceptives and importance of birth spacing. Counseling to women of family planning helps them to plan for a happy family and it also helps in safe motherhood. Many problems associated with the high maternal mortality rate can be significantly reduced by educating women in this part. Unsafe abortion may lead the life of a mother at risk. So, it is important to provide them right information on abortion and support them for abortion in the needy cases.
  • Care of mother in prenatal, postnatal and lactating stages: A woman needs care during pregnancy, delivery and child caring periods. There must be nutritious diet, cleanliness and immunization during these stages. She also needs counseling for better care of her own health and the baby's health. It is extremely necessary to have regular health check- up during pregnancy. Therefore, safe motherhood is only possible if women get care during pregnancy, delivery and post-delivery periods.


During the sexual intercourse sperms are deposited in the vagina. These sperm pass through the uterus and find their way into the uterine tubes. In the uterine tube the sperms penetrate the ova which results in the fusion of sperm with ova and produces fertilized ova.

After the fertilization the fertilized ovum continues its journey down the tube towards the uterus which takes about a week. It then becomes embedded in the wall of the uterus, which gives rise to the formation of an entirely new complete human being, and it is called the conception.

Symptoms of Conception

Following symptoms may be observed after the conception:

  1. Stopping of mensuration.
  2. Feeling of nausea up to the early months.
  3. The breast becomes firm and enlarged.
  4. The areola around the nipple becomes more deeply pigmented.
  5. The glomerular filtration rate and the renal flow increases at the beginning of six to twelve weeks of conception.
  6. Feeling of fetal movement after the fourth to fifth month of conception.

Hazards of Conception

  1. If the age of mother is below eighteen years and above thirty five years.
  2. Not having proper birth gap.
  3. Chronic illness.
  4. Mother suffering from venereal diseases and AIDS.
  5. Mother suffering from malnutrition.
  6. Maternal bossy weight is less than forty kg and the height shorter than 145 cm.

In the second stage the body is born. The baby is pushed out of the uterus and down the vagina, usually head first. The mother experiences sweating, vomiting and severe pain during this stage. As soon as, the baby is born and he/she starts breathing normally. The umbilical is clamped at two places and cut between the clamps.

The third stage of labor is considered the stage of discharge of placenta by powerful contraction of uterus. The placenta comes away from the wall of the uterus and passes out through the vagina. Genitals should be thoroughly cleaned after discharging placenta and mucus. The placenta should be buried.

Sex determination

Reproduction is brought by the activity of the male and female essential sex organs. The testis and ovaries, producing male and female sex cells, these are known as sperms and ova. The male sex cells- sperms deposited in the vagina during copulation, can survive about twenty four hours. The sperms are very long tail, which enable them to make their way towards the female cell, the ovum.The ovum is a female sex cell which s produced by the ovary every month after the menstruation. The ovum or ova have a life of about forty eight hours. The ova are received by the fallopian tube and pass towards the uterus. When a sperm meets an ovum and fuses with it, which normally takes place in the uterine tube, it is called the fertilization and a new cell is formed, which is the fertilized ovum. The fertilized ova receive twenty three chromosomes from each parent. It receives forty four ordinary chromosomes and two sex chromosomes. The sex chromosomes are x and y. The sperm carries the twenty two X chromosomes and one Y chromosomes, whereas the ovum contains twenty two ordinary chromosomes and X chromosomes. Thus forty four plus XY (the x from mother and y from father) produce male.


The period after the conception to the birth of the baby is known as pregnancy period. The period of pregnancy is about 280 days. The possible date of delivery can be calculated by adding nine months seven days with the date of conception or the last menstruation.

The hazards of pregnancy are given below:

  1. If the age of mother is less than twenty and more than thirty five years.
  2. If her weight is less than forty kg and height is less than 145 cm.
  3. If she has already given many births.
  4. If the birth spacing is narrower.
  5. If the mother is infected or sick of chronic diseases.

Pregnancy is an important period. Special care is need at the time of pregnancy.

Some implications for the care of a pregnant woman are given below:

  • Cleanliness is a must. Care should be given in personal hygiene.
  • The diet should be balanced. A pregnant woman should not eat more than in usual condition.
  • Light physical exercise is beneficial.
  • Frequent check- up should be followed.
  • Heavy travel at the beginning of pregnancy and toward the time of delivery should be avoided.
  • Immunization should be given on time.

Birth and Labour

After the completion of certain time period, the birth of the baby takes place. About after 280 days, the baby comes out of the vagina along with the placenta and mucus. The baby begins to press for its exit. This press is called as labour or the period from when the baby begins to press to come out up to the discharge of the cord and placenta is known as labour period.


Pregnancy is an important phase in the reproduction of a mother. The reproduction life of a female starts with men ache and ends with menopause. Pregnancy can be defined as the physiological condition of a woman that starts with the birth of the conception and lasts with the birth of the baby. The normal period of pregnancy is generally considered nine months and seven days or 280 days. However, fertilization occurs fourteen days prior to the date of the expected missed period. Therefore, the exact duration of pregnancy is 280 to fourteen or sixty days.

The following are signs and symptoms are observed during pregnancy:

  1. Amenorrhea/ Stopped menstruation: The menstruation in pregnant woman stops, as the ovum is already fused with the sperm. Sometimes the menstrual date can be changed some days earlier or later. It is wise to wait for at least ten days after the expected date of menstruation to consider occurrence of pregnancy.
  2. Breast change: During the early phase of pregnancy, woman experience the changes of breast such as heaviness, discomfort and tingling in the breast. As pregnancy progresses, the beast become large, the nipple and areola enlarge and become more pigmented.
  3. Exhaustion: Pregnant women feel sleepiness and lack of the interest to do any work. They feel tired and heavy.
  4. Morning sickness: During the early phase of pregnancy, the woman experience nausea in the morning, even accompanied by vomiting.
  5. Enlargement of the uterus: With the development of the fetus, the abdomen of the pregnant woman enlarges. It grows out of the pelvis in the supra- pubic region about twelve weeks and reaches umbilicus at twenty-two weeks.
  6. Skin change: The skin of the armpit and breast that becomes dark within twenty four weeks, (called chloasma) in the cheek is observed.

Problems during Pregnancy

There are various types of problem that are observed during pregnancy period. These problems are categorized as minor and major problems. As the pregnancy period is special stage, many pregnant woman face various problems. Pregnant woman should be handled with care. It is very sensitive stage.

Minor problems of Pregnancy

  • Morning sickness (nausea and vomiting)
  • Swelling of vein of leg
  • Anaemea
  • Constipation
  • Loss of sleep
  • Fatigue
  • Swelling of gum
  • Nasal bleeding

Major problems of pregnancy

Pregnancy is a serious case. Woman face various problems during this stage. Some women's pregnancy is completed without any problems. But some women have to face complex and major problems. Some of the major problems are described below:

  • Abortion: Abortion can be defined as terminating pregnancy before 20 weeks. It is the expulsion of fetus before becoming variable to survive. There are two types pf abortion spontaneous and induced. Expulsion of alive or dead fetus before 20 weeks is called spontaneous abortion. Expulsion of fetus with the desire to kill it or terminate the pregnancy by using medicine is called induced abortion.
  • Oedema: Due to extra 5-6 liters of water accumulated by woman during pregnancy oedema is caused. Lower limbs are swollen because of load of increasing baby in womb. Pressed veins get swelled. There might be problem of increasing weight unnecessarily. To maintain the weight in normal state, attention should be paid on meal.

Maternal and Child Health Care

The health services provided to the women during pregnancy, delivery and lactating period and to the children under the age of the five with an aim of improving their health condition are called maternal and child health care. Lack of attention in maternal and child health care is the main cause of untimely death of the mother and children in the worth. Improvement in the community health is impossible unless there is significant progress in the maternal and child health care. The condition of maternal and child health care is very poor in the developing country nations like ours in comparison to the developed nations. The health status of developing nations is deteriorating due to high maternal, infant and child mortality rates. It is highly imperative to bring significant improvement in maternal and child health care to improve condition of the country.

The following points reflect the importance of maternal and child health care:

  1. It helps is safe pregnancy and provides good health care to pregnant women.
  2. It ensures the health of the mother and child as abortion is made by the trained personnel.
  3. It helps to the birth of the healthy baby because it provides services of vacation for immunization against the diseases and ensures balanced diet and cleanliness to the pregnant women during pregnancy.
  4. It protects the reproductive rights and creates happy life.

A child resides in the mother's womb for around nine month and the birth of a fully developed infant takes place. All the members should extend necessary support during the period to achieve safe motherhood. Adverse effects may appear in safe motherhood in absence of a good harmony among the family members. Thus, family members have a vital role for safe motherhood. The life of birth, the mother and the baby can be protected from the untimely death by necessary support from the family members.

Care of pregnant women

A healthy mother can give birth to a healthy baby. So, it is crucial to take care of the health of a woman since the starting of pregnancy. For this, a nutritious diet, regular health check- up, cleanliness, exercise, rest and immunization against diseases are important points to be considered.

  1. Nutritious diet: A pregnant women needs to take nutritious diet. It is important to fulfill her own and the developing child's nutritional requirement while taking the diet. The growth of a fetus takes places from the mother's blood through placenta. Thus, a mother should take a nutritious diet by incorporating the right proportion of all the nutrients. Pregnant women should be nourished with the protein foods like pulses, meet, eggs, fish milk, etc. she should also take sufficient fruits and vegetables containing the minerals like iodine, iron, calcium and vitamins.
  2. Health examination: Pregnant women should take regular health check up from the nearby hospital, health post, nursing home, etc. by consulting a gynecologist. It provides her necessary information on the condition of developing fetus and necessary precaution to be taken during pregnancy. It addition, it helps to identify the problems like anemia, bleeding, etc. and provides immediate treatment in such cases. A pregnant woman should have regular health checkup at least once a month in the first seven months of pregnancy, twice a month in the eight while nearing to the delivery date.
  3. Cleanliness: Personal cleanliness and environmental sanitation help to prevent various types of diseases such as diarrhea, dysentery, cholera, typhoid, jaundice, etc. If pregnant women suffer from these diseases, then it highly affects the fetus in the womb. Therefore, it is extremely essential to pay attention to cleanliness during pregnancy. A pregnancy woman should take regular bath, wear clean clothes maintain personal hygienic habits and take fresh and clean food.
  4. Physical exercise and rest: Light physical exercises and rest are considered healthier for women. So, light walking in the morning and evening may be beneficial. However, activities such as heavy exercises, lifting of heavy loads may cause abortion in some cases. Traveling long at the beginning and ending period of delivery may be very risky. Sound sleep and proper rest may help pregnant women to develop a good health. Lack of rest and sleep may adversely affects the health of both child and mother. So, she should try to be cheerful and happy always.
  5. Vaccination/ Immunization: Pregnant women should get vaccinated against tetanus in order to protect themselves and the babies. It is essential to take T.T. vaccine two times between the seventh and ninth months of pregnancy at the interval of one month.

Care during delivery

The end of pregnancy is marked by the labour. It is a highly complicated stage, so women should be intensively taken care during their stage. This stage consists of three phases. The cervix dilates and the labour starts in the first phase. The baby is born in the second phase and the placenta comes out from the wall of the uterus and passes through the vagina in the third phase.

The following care should be taken during the delivery of a baby:

  1. Once the labour pain starts then she should be taken to the nearby hospital or health center as soon as possible, otherwise a trained mid- wife should be called for the labour.
  2. She should be given liquids foods like fruits juice, glucose, water and hot milk, etc.
  3. She should be asked for frequent urination.
  4. She should be encouraged to complete the labour with patience and taken care with love and security.

Care for postnatal mother

The period between delivery and two months after delivery is called postnatal period. The infant entirely depends on the mother for his survival in this period. So, proper care should be provided to both the mother and infant during the period.

Some of the ways to provide care to the mother or infant are as follows:

  1. The mother should be served with extra nutritious diet including the foods like meat, eggs, pulses, vegetables, fruits, etc.
  2. The infant should be kept clean by bathing after a couple of days of delivery. The infants may also be kept clean by using clean cloth to wipe the body.
  3. The infant should be fed with the colostrum's or the first secretion of the mother's breast on the day of delivery. The colostrum's is rich in protein and contain antibodies to fight against diseases.
  4. Mother should follow healthy hygiene habit by maintaining personal cleanliness and should take extra care to keep the breast and nipples clean.

Infant health care

An average weight of three kilogram and height of fifty centimeter is considered appropriate for a newly born baby. The weight should be three times more than the weight of birth and height should be seventy five centimeters after completing one year in the average if the child attains healthy growth and development.

An infant should be taken care of as follows:

  1. The infant should be held inverted immediately after the birth so that mucus, water, etc. comes out of nose and mouth which helps to clear the blockage.
  2. To ensure to continuous supply of blood from the mother, the infant should be kept below the level of uterus and tied to the umbilical cord.
  3. The nose and mouth of the infant should be cleaned by removing the mucus.
  4. The baby should be wrapped by clean clothes and kept warm.
  5. The umbilical cord should be cut by using the sterilized and safe instruments.
  6. If the mother's milk is insufficient, then other liquid should be provided to the infant.

Child Nutrition

The mother's milk is considered the best nutrition for an infant. Breast feeding should be done to a newly born baby for the first four month. Mother,s milk provides sufficient nutrition and develops a strong immune system to fight against diseases. Nourishing the infants with the packet milk and other animal milks is not considered appropriate from the perspective of health at the beginning of child nutrition.

Breast Feeding has got the following advantages:

  1. It is the best nutrient for the infant as it includes all the nutritional requirements. Moreover, it can be suckled at any time.
  2. Colostrum contains antibodies which increases the immune power to fight against diseases.
  3. It prevents the child from diarrhea.
  4. It is economically beneficial as there is no need to spend the money for buying the commercial milk.
  5. It strengthens the affinity between the mother and the child.

The following table has shown the nutritional requirement of children up to two years of age:

Age group Food items
0-5 months Mothers milk
5-6 months Mothers milk, lotto and mashed vegetables.
6-9 months Mothers milk, lotto and mashed vegetables and soft fruits.
1-2 years Mothers milk, rice, pulses, lotto, dal, cereals, green vegetables, egg, meat, milk, butter, etc.

Points for attention

  1. All the vaccines should be given in time.
  2. BCG should be taken only whereas DPT and Polio should be given three times.
  3. There is a probability of diseases unless the vaccination of DPT and Polio is taken.
  4. Little fever might be seen after immunization but it is not necessary to worry about it.

Female Reproductive System

The process of giving birth to new ones is known as reproduction. Unicellular creatures reproduce their offspring through cell division. Some lay eggs and some give birth to baby. Females becomes pregnant due to fertilization of sperm and ovum after fertilization. The foetus developed in uterus and it takes birth after some specific time.

Female Reproductive System

The female reproductive organs are classified into two types: internal and external organ. The internal organs play vital role in human reproduction. The internal organ of female are described below:


Vagina is made up of connective, fibrous, and epithelial tissue. It is cannel of 10-15 cm length from opening to the cervix of uterus. The main function of vagina is to receive penis ans sperm during sexual contact, passing blood during menstruation and passing out the baby during delivery.


It is a hollow muscular organ between urinary bladder and rectum. Uterus has three parts. Upper parts is "fundus", middle part is "body" and the lower part is "cervix". It is place where ovum is fertilized and baby is grown. After the puberty, menstruation starts in girls. At that time thick layer of blood is prepared in endometrium. If fertilization takes place foetus develops in the suitable environment of endometrium, otherwise the thick layer of blood crumbles and passes through vagina every month.

Fallopian Tube

The length of Fallopian tube is 10 cm. It ends towards ovary. Main function of Fallopian tube is to transport a ovum to the uterus each month and it is also the place where conception takes place.


There are two ovaries if female. They are made up of connective tissue. Ovary is female gonad which produce oestrogen andprogesterone hormone required for the development of women.