Published by: Mandira
Published Date: 11 Jan 2022
Solid Waste Management
Residues of vegetables, ash, waste paper, broken glass, plastic are some of the solid wates from oue houses, educational institution, office, industry or market area.Residues of vegetables, ash, waste paper, broken glass, plastic are some of the solid wastes from our houses, educational institution, office, industry or market area. When we throw some refuse to an open place and it is mixed with some other particles it becomes solid waste. Solid waste should be managed properly.
Classification of solid waste
- Organic Waste:The waste which is degradable is known as organic waste. The examples of organic waste are dust, kitchen waste, vegetable residue etc.
- Inorganic waste:The waste such as plastic, rubber, metal etc which are non-degradable in nature is known as inorganic waste.
Principles of solid waste management
The proper management of solid waste is to collect waste from different places, store in the specific places and dispose and use them properly. The principles of solid waste management are described below.
We must try to reduce the production of waste. We should use materials like plastic, chemicals, pesticides etc in less amount.This may help in managing the waste.
The wastes which can be reuse should be used again and again. Plastic bags and other materials made up of plastics should be avoided. We can reuse bottles to keep different spices.
Some of the wastes such as paper, plastics, etc can be collected separately. The unused paper should be recycled to make new materials. Metallic materials such as broken tin, iron pots etc can be used to make new and useful materials. This helps in making environment clean.
Measures of managing solid waste
Preparation of compost manure
Organic wastes are separately collected and we can manage to decompose them. Organic waste materials from domestic use and industrial use can be made as compost manure. It is the natural method in which bacteria decompose the wastes and convert them into compost.At first solid wastes are separated into degradable and non-degradable. a small pit of 3ft long and 3ft wide is used in this process. This method is very useful for Nepal.
In this method, wastes are collected in some places and they are thrown in dumping site. If natural land fill site is available, it is easier for this process. If we dump only non-degradable waste, it can sustain for a longer period.
Materials containing carbon (such as plastic, rubber etc) cannot be burnt because it harms. These materials can be burnt in a special type of machine called incinerator.
Management of Wastewater
Introduction to wastewater
The water which is thrown after it is used in different purposes is known as waste water. Congested areas produce a large amount of waste water. Sources of wastewater are house, industry, latrine, hospital and industry. This is also known as polluted water. The materials found in polluted water are pollutants.
Composition of waste water
Wastewater from kitchen contains dissolved or non-dissolved food particles. Similarly, it may contain cleaning powder and ashes. Waste water from latrine contains excreta as well as soap water. Wastewater disposed of industries contains different materials according to the types of industry. The composition of wastewater depends on its sources.
Management of drainage
Management of wastewater helps to keep our environment clean. The pollutants of waste water differ from source to source. Some methods that can be applied for the proper management of drainage are as follows:
- The drainage system should be built in the residential area to manage waste water of home, latrine and rain water.
- Proper care and maintenance of a drainage system should be done.
- Accumulation of more water in agricultural land is harmful to soil, plants, useful insects and organisms. It makes land loose and thus causes landslides and soil erosion.
- There should be the participation of the local people on drainage management. The participation of local people makes easy in repairing of drainages.
Management Methods of Inorganic Wastages
All the house , institution , offices , and industries etc are the areas theregular source of waste material . The waste material from vegetable , ashes , waste paper , brokenglass etc are the example of solid wastes . The waste water , solid waste should also be managed in proper place . We human beings use various types of things in our daily life . After using that substance we can find some waste material which comes out from them . When that material are thrown without properdisposal , the waste material gets mixed with dust , soil and become solid wastes .
- Reduction : The wastes should be produced in the very low amount from various sources as far as possible. If usage of raw materials is reduced , the generation of waste also gets reduced . Some example of them is like we can develop the using of jute and paper bag . Not only this if we buy milk from the dairy then we can have our own pots .
- Recycling: It is the process of converting the unwanted or the waste materials into reusable objects to prevent waste of potentially useful materials, reduces the consumption of fresh raw materials, usage, air pollution and water pollution by decreasing the need for "conventional" waste disposal and lowering emissions compared to plastic production. Most of the waste products can be reused . The waste material like metallic and polyethylene can be collected and separately from the solid waste. For example, waste paper can also be collected and recycle it again.
- Resue :The same things which can be used time and again in its original form is known as reuse . Like polyethene bags and glass bottles is non-degradable waste which can be used again . The materials which are made from polyethene should not be used as far as possible and if used once ,they should be used time and again. etc.
Effects of excreta disposal on environmental health
Excreta disposed in free space pollutes air, water and land. Some of the problems created by excreta are described below:
Pollution of surroundings
Some people excrete in open areas whereas some in latrine. Similarly some people do not keep latrine clean. This is harmful to our health. It also makes our surroundings polluted.
Pollution of air, water and land
There is not proper latrines in rural areas as compared to urban areas. They use open space as field for defecation. It pollutes air, water and land.
Spread of diseases
Polluted environment is a favorable place for spreading germs. The agents spread through excreta to our food, cause cholera, diarrhea, dysentery, typhoid etc.
Types of latrines and use
Latrine is a place where disposal of excreta is done. Latrines helps to keep our environment clean. The types of latrines differ from rural and urban areas.People use different types of latrine as convenient to them. Different types of latrines are described below:
Simple pit Latrine
This latrine is constructed by digging pit. Its size depends on the size of the family. It can be constructed in rural areas where there is lack of sufficient material like cement, water iron rod etc.
Site for a pit latrine should be selected carefully. The soil structure of its site should be hard. The following points should be considered while selecting its site:
- A pit latrine should be about 30 feet away from the house and it should be constructed below the water sources.
- Pit latrine should not be constructed on the land that consists of soft soil.
- The door and ventilation of latrine should not be faced towards the house. Otherwise, bad smell of the latrine spreads towards houses.
Advantages and disadvantages of simple pit latrine
- Pit latrine can be constructed in the area where there is lack of sufficient water to use.
- Pit latrine can be constructed with low cost. After construction, it can be used for longer period.
- Ventilator can be kepi in the latrine and a wooden slab can cover the pan.
- If proper attention is not given while constructing the pit latrine, pit may be filled from sliding the soft soil around the pit. It may spread bad smell and may cause several diseases.
Improved pit latrine (SULAV Shauchalaya)
It is the improved pit latrines. There is a provision of drain up to the pits. This type of latrine is permanent and better than simple latrine. The site of improved pit latrine is selected following the criteria as in simple pit latrine.
Advantages of improved pit latrine
- It consists of two pits. When first pit is filled second pit is used. The excreta of first pit convert into compost before using second pit. Less experienced person can construct it.
- This latrine is permanent because it is constructed by using cement, rings, pans and slab.
- There is water seal in its pan so that it prevents to spreads bad smell.
- This latrine helps to prevent from diseases that are born from excreta. It helps to keep our environment healthy and keep us healthy.
Pollution is the presence of a substance that tends to affect directly or indirectly the environment or changes, degrades or spoils the environment. Pollution can be categorized into following types:
- Air Pollution
- Water Pollution
- Soil Pollution
- Noise Pollution
An undesirable change in the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of air is called pollution. The substances which pollute the air called pollutants. Air pollution causes heart diseases, eye problem, cancer etc. Apart from it, air carries the bacteria and virus from one place to another place and transmits different diseases such as tuberculosis, polio, diphtheria and acute respiratory tract infections.
The following are the main causes of air pollution:
- The dust particles and harmful materials blown out by the wind gets mixed in the air and pollutes it.
- Natural gases that come from inside the earth's surface also pollutes the air.
- Harmful gases released from different factories, industries and vehicles pollutes the air.
- Gases that comes from burnt materials,rotten and decayed materials also pollutes the air.
- Poisonous gases spreading out in the fields, rooms and houses are also the causes for air pollution.
The following are the effects of air pollution:
- Air pollution causes respiratory tract infection (RTI) and asthma.
- It deteriorates the cultural heritage and trees.
- It brings various skin and eye allergy.
- It is the main cause of global warming. that affects all the creatures of the world.
The preventive measures of air pollution are as follows:
- The air pollutants should be controlled as the point source by using electrostatic precipitator or filter in the industries.
- The use of cheap fuel with higher sulphur content should be avoided. Use of disulphurized coal should be used.
- Alternate sources of energy should be used in place of coal, wood, oil etc.
- Population growth rate should be controlled.
- Strip plantation should be done everywhere on the road side.
- Strict check of car exhaust should be maintained.
- Public awareness programme about the effects of pollution should be managed.
Degradation in the quality of water is called water pollution. Water covers over the 3/4th part of the earth’s surface. It is a very important resource for people and the environment. Water pollution affects drinking water, rivers, lakes and oceans all over the world. In many developing countries, it is usually a leading cause of death, by people drinking from polluted water sources. Drainage and wastage from industries, laboratory, hospitals, and homes are the main factors that causes water pollution.
The following are the main causes of water pollution: -
- Natural calamities like flood, landlides, soil erosion, heavy rain, etc. also pollute the water.
- Leakage of agro-chemical from agricultural fields mixing with water resource can also cause water pollution.
- Throwing of dead bodies of animals in water resources also pollutes water.
- Some human activities like washing of clothes and utensils near wells, ponds, streams, lakes, etc. also pollutes the water sources.
The following are the main effects of water pollution: -
- Water pollution causes water-borne disease like diarrhoea, dysentery and cholera.
- It also brings various skin allergy if taken the bath with polluted water.
- Acid rain deteriorates cultural heritages.
- It has the negative impact on plants.
- Aquatic animals cannot survive in polluted water.
The following are the main preventive measures of water pollution: -
- The dead bodies of animals and other wastes should not be thrown in water resources.
- People should be made aware of the consequences of water pollution and they should be encouraged to participate in the pollution control programme.
- Production of domestic waste should be reduced as far as possible and it should not be thrown in and around the water resources like ponds, rivers, lakes, streams etc.\
- Water pollution due to soil erosion, landslides, and floods should be controlled by minimizing the activities which cause these problems.
Land pollution is the degradation of earth's surface. Land pollution makes the quality of soil low. It directly affects the plants and indirectly to human beings. Human actions have also caused many large areas of land to lose or reduce their capacity to support life forms and ecosystems. This is known as land degradation.
The following are the main causes of land pollution: -
- The accumulation of huge amount of bio-degradable and non-biodegradable waste materials pollutes land.
- Farmers use chemicals such as fertilizers and pesticides in their farms to increase production. However, it adversely can affect land and water resources in and around there.
- Soil is polluted by storing of soluble and insolubledirt's on the earth.
- Trekkers and mountaineers carry different types of packed food and other necessary things with them. After using them, they throw such materials like plastics, tins and other materials there. This pollutes some of the tourist areas of rural and city parts of Nepal.
- The solid and liquid substance of the industries such as leather, shoe, battery distillery, paper and metal destroy the land conditions and it pollutes the soil.
The following are the main effects of land pollution:
- Land pollution kills the useful organisms like an earthworm.
- The soil becomes infertile and not suitable for cultivation.
- Agriculture production will decrease.
- Underground water becomes polluted.
- Bad smell spreads from the polluted land and it causes pollution to the surrounding places.
- It destroys beauty of the environment and the importance of cultural heritages as well.
The following are the preventive measures of land pollution: -
- Bio-degradable materials such as residue of plants, vegetables and other wastes of plants should be used to make compost.
- Broken machines, vehicles and other materialsshould be re-used.
- Legal provision should be made on the management of solid wastes.
- The solid waste and harmful chemicals from industries, hospitals and laboratories should be processed and purified to some extent before discharging them to land and water resources.
- The use of plastic bags and other materials made from plastic should be reducedand must be re-used in some extent.
Noise is considered as environmental pollution, even though it is thought to have less damage to humans than water, air or land pollution. Noise pollution also disturbs the ecosystem. Noise pollution does not harm the environment as much as air pollution but if affects the health of the person negatively. If someone has to stay in a very noisy condition for long time, this will affect the hearing power (nervous system).
The following are the main causes of noise pollution:
- Noise is created during construction by machinery.
- Market area, densely populated settlement, industrial area produces much sound that causes noise pollution.
- Industries like cement factory, flour mill, metal industries, etc. produces loud noise.
- Noise-pollution is caused by construction activities like road construction and building construction.
- Crowd in urban areas and miking causes sound pollution.
- Playing radio, television and various musical instruments in high volume causes sound pollution.
The following are the main effects of noise pollution:
- Sitting in a noisy place for long time damages our hearing capacity.
- It causes imbalance in the production of hormones.
- Frustration, depression, hypertension etc. may cause.
- High-stress level and sleep disturbances may happen.
- A loud noise may break the tympanic membrane of the ear and it leads to diseases.
The following are the preventive measures of noise pollution:
- Green belts should be created where there is the high level of noises.
- The people who work in noisy places should use earplugs.
- Vehicles which produces loud noise should not be operated near the cities.
- High walls can be built around the factory which helps to check the transmission of noise.
- Machine with silencer should be used as far as possible. Regular servicing of machie is also helpful to check the sund pollution.
Concept of Environmental Health
The environment is the place where we can find the number of living things and a number of non-living things. The things like forest, water , land ,plants and animals etc are present in the environment. They are said to be the components of the environment. Whereas the physical, biological and socio-cultural health of an environment is known as environmental health.
The environment is the place where people show their overall life cycle. We human beings cannot imagine our life without proper environment. According to UN from 1972 AD, 5, of June is celebrated as the World Environmental day. According to WHO, "environmental health refers to those aspects of human health and disease that are determined by the factors in the environmental. "As of 2016 the WHO website on environmental health states".
All the living creatures depend on upon the environment. If the environment good then the people will be healthy but if the environment will be dirty or polluted then people will be sick or unhealthy. Environmental health mainly affects everyone. The environmental health always looks the health of an individual. It also helps to his quality of life of the people. There are various area under which environmental health. Some of them are as follow:
- there should de management of housing
- the personal hygiene should be maintained properly
- the environment should be clean and healthy
- the supply of proper and safe drinking water
Environmental Pollution and Management of Pollution
All the people are directly or indirectlyrelated to the environment.People they started doing different types of activities inside the environment. Due to the modernization people they started to do development in the environment. People they do unmanaged development due to which the environment started to pollute. Because of unmanaged Industrialization, unplanned urbanization etc affect the environment directly or indirectly.
Due to these all activities slow environment, it started to be polluted and the environment it started to be unbalanced. Which cause water pollution, Acid rain, Climate change etc. not only this due to the pollution of environment different types of bacteria, diseases . fungi etc began to grow more and more which affect the human life.
Introduction to Environmental Pollution
A population is growing more and more. Due to the over population people they started to destroy the natural resources which are affecting
the environment of the earth. As we know we need food to eat, we need clothes to wear, we need a house for shelter etc to fulfill these all need we started to destroy the environment. People they started to make big building, big industry, many transportations etc so the pollution caused by this substance are called pollution. Due to these all things water, air, land, and sound pollution began to start. Which also directly or indirectly affect the people or the health of the people.
Important of Environmental Health
Environmental health is very important for everyone because it helps make people aware of different types of pollution or different of bad effect which they see after development. Following are some important points of environmental health :
- It helps to make responsible for controlling pollution.
- It helps to balance the environment.
- It helps to make people aware of different pollution.
- It helps to prevent the pollution borne disease.
Measures to Maintain Environmental Health in Family and School:
- They should keep their surrounding clean.
- They should do proper management of wastage materials from the house and school.
- They should do proper cleanness of the toilets .
- They should plantation of trees around the school and the houses.
Source and causes of Environmental Pollution
Human beings conduct different types of activities and do development or construction work. Surrounding of the environment should be neat and clean in order to be healthy. We should always make cleanliness of our residence, surrounding, neighbour, and community. The change in physical, chemical and biological components of the environment occur due to the different types of natural causes. The change that occurred in both quantity and quality in the different parts of those components of the environmental is known as environmental pollution.
All the forest, water, land, river, hill, mountains are natural resources. Sometimes we see the change in the temperature, we see the volcanic eruption, flood, landslide, soil erosion, earthquake etc. This types of natural occurrence causes are seen in the earth most of the time. Some of the factors that cause pollution from the natural sources are described below :
- Flood: Flood is the overflow of the water that may be the river or in the stream. Due to the deforestation, big rainfall, earthquake, and global climate change etc. The flood may occur due to the change in climate. Mainly in rainy season flood may occur in the very dangerous way. If the flood occurs in the country then the fertility of the land decreased by depositing sand, stone etc in the land. Flood can destroy the road, bridges, industries, other physical structure also like the life of the people, animal, forest etc. Due to flood, it may cause soil erosion and landslide also.
- Change in the Earth Temperature: The increase of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide and the decrease in the proportion of oxygen there is the increase in temperature of the earth. This is the cause of climate change. Due to the result of the change in the earth temperature, we can see different types of changes on the surface of the earth melting of the ice, high heat etc. Again due to deforestation, burning plastics, emission of gases from old vehicles, factories etc. We can see a change in the earth temperature.
- Earthquake: The suddenly shaking or vibration in the earth surface caused by the sudden release of slow strain by faulting is called an earthquake. There are mainly two types of the earthquake like Horizontal earthquake and vertical: The movement of back and forth of the parts of the earth and the movement of up and down of earth part. Both of them are dangerous but vertical earthquake is little dangerous. The earthquake also destroys the life and property of the people. It can damage the road, house, bridges and other constructions very badly.
- Ozon layer Depletion: Ozone is the joined formed of oxygen gas where each ozone molecule contains a there atom of oxygen. The upper part of troposphere and stratosphere: Stratosphere contains a large number of poisonous gas which is often called ozone layer. Ozone layer includes the power to check the harmful ultraviolet radiation coming from the sun. The gases like chlorofluorocarbons, bromine monoxide, chlorine monoxide, halons etc used in the refrigerators, coolers, foam industries, fire extinguishers and other industrial works deplete the ozone layer.
Anthropogenic Causes /Sources
Environmental health is related to human health and quality of life of people. Environmental health helps to make human life qualitative. It manages hygienic residence, food, water, air which come under environment physical moral, social and culture components of the environment and environmental health .
But now due to different types of the things, the sources of the country are disappeared. Like deforestation, war, the explosion of weapons, mining, physical construction work, unmanaged drainage, unsustainable farming come under the environmental pollution. Nowadays, people they use different types of things for the betterment of the lifestyle. But we don't know due to the use of different types of thing we are polluting our environment. For example, we human beings need a place to live, we need the home for shelter so we started cutting the tree .
- Construction Work: To change or to improve people lifestyle people lifestyle people they started to different types of construction works like road, dam, building, airports, railways etc. This types of development can cause degradation of the ecosystem. It also hampers to the wild animals which live in the forest. For to improve people living slander people they started to make different types of industries, building etc. but environment gets polluted and different types of disease attack to them .
- Deforestation: Trees are the main parts of things which are present in the environment. The cutting down of trees is known as deforestation. Nowadays, people, are cutting trees more and more due to the growth of population. Due to the cutting down of trees or deforestation different types, natural disasters begin to start like the landslide, the land become drier, the sources of the water began to disappear etc. The greenhouse also began to increase more and more day by day which may result in the environmental problems such as Global warming and climate change.
- Unmanaged Urbanization: Today world is the modern world. The unmanaged development program people they are facing different types of problem. Due to unplanned urbanization and settlements are the conditions resulted in a lack of effective urban planning which results in adverse effects on health, sanitation, securities, housing and other aspects of life. When they started to do unmanaged urbanization people they have to use minimum facilities like drinking water, health services, transportation, electricity, employment etc.
- Industrialization: As we all know the industry is one of the main parts of the development of the country. If in the country's people started to open many industries there will be no problems of the employment no lack of money on one will unemployment but due to the unmanaged or unplanned industry people they are facing many types of problems.Unmanaged industries pollute the environment in different ways. All the solid or liquid waste can cause water pollution. Whereas the smoke which comes the industries can cause air pollution.
- Mining: In the different part of the country we can have many minerals. To take out this types of minerals we do different types of things. Those minerals which can be used in different work of development. In the country, if there is not managed mines then we can face various types of problems like soil erosion, water pollution, air pollution, sound pollution and many other occur due to the haphazard mining activities.