Published by: Mandira
Published Date: 11 Jan 2022
The size of population keeps on changing. It increases or decreases according to time and space. The major factors affecting population are birth, death and migration.
Birth increases the population while death decreases the population. Migration also causes population change. Internal migration does not make any changes but international migration makes the differences in the size of population. But as a whole, migration does not affect in the size of population change.
Factors affecting the population change
The birth is a chief natural factor affecting the population change. It results into the increase of population. Higher birth rate, quicker the population growth.
The following are the prominent factors which plays an important role in increasing population, they are:
Death is an important natural cause to bring change in population. It decreases the population of a country. Reduction in death rate automatically brings down the birth rate. The main reason for the decrease in death rate in Nepal is the decrease in the infant and child rate.
The following are the factors responsible for the death they are:
Movement of people from one place to another is called migration. Migration causes change of population. As we migrate from one place to another the population of one place decreases while of other place increases. It is considered as unnatural element of population change. The number of immigrants is gradually increasing like Nepalese emigrants. People come for business and employment and starts to live permanently.
The following are the determining factors to population change:
The increasing population results into increasing demands, needs and services. Their needs are unlimited but country has limited resources to fulfill their needs and desire. The growing population needs more fuel, timber, food, cloth, and more facilities of education and health. The people started to exploit the natural resources which results in the environment degradation. Thus society, culture, natural resources and economic development are affected by the growing population.
In this respect, various consequences of population growth are as follows:
The environment of any area is affected by the composition of population and growth rate of population. If there is any imbalance between population growth and the environment, the environment gets degraded and people have to face many difficulties to meet their needs and demands.
Forest and vegetation
Forest and vegetation are the most important aspects of human life. Various species of vegetation play an important role increasing a balance in the environment, they help to keep environment clean, fresh, green and beautiful. They protect the soil from landslides and soil erosion. The needs and demands of people are increasing along with the growth of population. It leads to degradation of forest and vegetation.Many forest and vegetation are being cleared by the people for fodder, grass and their settlement. Thus, deforestation has become an acute problem in Nepal. Due to deforestation many species of wildlife, medicinal herbs and other important forest products are in acute shortage.
Aquatic lives and terrestrial animals
The growth of population has affected the marine life adversely. The water resources such as underground water, river, well, pond, tank, sea and ocean, etc. have begun to dry and the existing ones have been polluted. The survival of fish and amphibians has disappearance. It has badly affected man, other creatures and plants. Thus, the growth of population has made the condition of aquatic creatures very difficult. The terrestrial part refers to the earth crust. It composed of soil, sand, dust particles and stone.
Living organisms cannot survive without fresh air. Fresh air saves the life. Polluted air causes diseases. Oxygen content of the atmosphere decreases by deforestation. Contents of carbon dioxide and other toxic gases increase in the atmosphere.Unmanaged urbanization and industrialization produces smoke, dust particles and other harmful wastes. Insecticides and other toxic chemicals mix inn air and pollute the fresh air of environment. Polluted air can produce different kinds of diseases like skin diseases, eye irritation, lung diseases, etc. Vegetation is also affected by the smoke and dust particle.
The source of water is adversely affected by the growth of population. The quality water is being degraded due to growing human activities in the environment. Sometimes, soil is deposited in the sources of water. It causes water pollution. Dumping of garbage and other waste, discharge of excreta materials into river make the water polluted. People become the victim of various types of diseases by drinking polluted water. Water is also polluted by excessive use of chemical fertilizers and insecticides. Chemical fertilizers insecticides remain in soil for a long period of time and slowly move down and pollute the underground water.
Land is the most important natural resource and sources of varieties of food. Human activities are responsible for land pollution and the loss of productivity of the land. Use of fertilizers, insecticides, etc. kill the natural fertility of the soil and soil finally losses its quality. The pressure on land increases with the increasing population. The size of land cannot increase along with the growth of population. There is a high possibility of imbalance between the population and the available land.
Floods are usually called natural calamities. But human activities have contributed to the sharp rise in floods. Cultivation of land, deforestation, overgrazing and mining has removed water absorbing vegetation and soil. Urbanization also increases flooding. Heavy rainfall occurs during the monsoon period. This down-power runs off from the mountain so rapidly that most of it cannot be controlled and used. The massive runoff water causes periodic flooding. During, the monsoon period, the speed and level of water is increased in streams, rivulet and rivers.Traditional method of cultivation and deforestation in the hilly region has caused soil erosion and landslide. These activities have also reduced the water holding capacity of soil which has favored the flooding.
Human settlement has become very dense many places of Nepal due to the rapid growth in population. People conduct a lot of activities in the growth of urbanization and establishment of much unpleasant or unwanted sound that causes discomfort. Noise increases along with the growth of urbanization and establishment of many industries in the town areas. The sound produces by increasing number of buses, trucks, motorcycle, trains, airplanes and heavy use of radio, television, etc is polluting environment and causing sound pollution.
It is found that economic development is slow where the population is increasing at faster rate. According to geographical condition, available means and resources, productivity rate and available cultivable land, the population growth rate is great problem. Population problem means the problem of fulfilling the basic needs like housing, food. Thus, the rapid population growth of population directly affects the economic, social and environmental development of a country.
Healthy mind and manpower are the pillars of development of a nation. People must be physically, socially and mentally healthy for the development of any nation. Thus, development of a nation depends upon the types and health condition of the manpower. Rapid population growth adversely affects the availability of health services and facilities.
The government of Nepal has limited resources which do not allow it to increase health services and facilities. Because of proper health service, people get infected by various types of diseases such as cholera, diarrhea, dysentery, etc. The untimely death of people due to lack of treatment has become very common in Nepal.
Education is an important need for everyone. Knowledge, skill and technology can be developing through the media of education. The skilled and specialized manpower is produced. It creates social, cultural and political awareness in people and makes them advanced. It helps in the complete development of man.But the high growth rate of population has had an adverse effect n the development of education.There is continuous increase in school and campus going students due to the increase in population. The number of schools, teachers and physical facilities are to be increased in the population to the increase in the number of students. Availability of reading books and educational materials and many other things are necessary for the quality education. Such are challenge to our country. The obstacles for quality education are the increase in population.
Culture and cultural heritage
Rapid population growth has degraded the environment. Environmental pollution results into the destruction of structure of the cultural heritage. The dust particles, various types of pollutants emitted from different industries, vehicles mix in the air and they pollute the atmosphere. Growing population brings changes in social values and beliefs, cultural behavior, traditions and customs of the society. It also affects the marriage patterns, festival, dresses, ornaments and thinking of the people. It attempts to bring in the western way of life which means deterioration of our culture. The young boys and girls are becoming immoral due to deterioration in our culture. They are attracted toward western culture which affects our culture badly. Therefore, in order to save our culture and cultural heritages, it is wise enough to control population growth of a country.
A human being has many needs. He/she has to work hard to earn money to fulfill all these needs. The main source of income is employment. Employment helps a person to develop his/her personality and skill. It also provides the solution to financial problems faced by people to fulfill their fundamental needs. Unemployment causes economic problems along with social, political and psychological evils. Most of the active people in Nepal are going aboard in search of jobs. Rapid population growth creates problems of unemployment because manpower increases with the increase in population. It is not possible to provide job to all the people because government has limited resources and means and so it can create only limited opportunities.
Educated people have not got job according to their qualifications. Agriculture is the main source of employment in our country but now agriculture land is decreasing due to human settlements. The soil has loss its fertility and people are now migrating from hills to terai. Due to this, the Terai has become over crowded. Thus, control of population and its management is only the solution of this problem.
Nepal is rich in water resources though we are facing problem of drinking water. There is no equal distribution of water in the entire region. Due to lack of technology and capital, a large number of Nepalese could only see the clean and pure drinking water but they are unable to utilize it. Shortage of drinking water can be easily seen in rural and urban areas. Due to tremendous increase in population, sources of water have become polluted.At present situation, the sounds of water are getting dry due to cutting of trees and destruction of the environment.
Reducing the rate of population growth and making plans for attraction and distractions in migration come under population control. The control of population growth is necessary to promote development activities for the welfare of the people.
The following are some of the measures to control population growth.
The measures which help to bear children after some year's gap are called temporary methods. It can increase the gap between first and second children. The female and male can adopt different temporary methods, they are:
It is one of the contraceptives devices for female which is taken orally. It is known by Nilocon or Gulab in our market. It makes hormonal changes in the ovary and stops the ovulation so that secretion of ova is not possible. But it has to be taken regularly.
It is called kamal tablet in Nepali. It is pushed into cervix about ten to fifteens before sexual intercourse. It can melt and from the coat of form which prevents sperm from entering the womb.
Femidom ( female condom)
It is a condom for women. It is made up of thin polyurethane or transparent rubber. It is used in the vagina so that sperm does not enter. It is a strong, transparent health which lines the vagina to create a barrier against sperm. It prevents sexually transmitted diseases also.
The chemical substance can be used in another way of instead of foam tablet. These are cream paste, jelly, and aerosol. It is used in the vagina before sexual intercourse. It kills the sperm entering into the cervix. It is very costly. It is not available in Nepal.
The permanent method of family planning provides permanent solutions to the pregnancy and birth. A permanent method for male is vasectomy and for a female is minilap and laparoscopy.
It is also called male sterilization. It is permanent surgical operation for a male in which the doctor makes a small opening in man's scrotum and closes the both tubes that carry sperms from the testes. This gives permanent solution to conception.
It is a permanent method of female contraception. It should be after forty-five days of delivery or within the eight days of menstruation.
It is a minor operation done on women who no longer has any wish for more children. It is done by a small surgery in the lower part of abdomen. The fallopian tubes are cut and tied up. This operation can be done if she is practicing other contraceptives devices.
Laparoscopy is also one of the permanent measures of contraception. It involves a surgical operation as a sterilization in which the doctor makes a small incision in the abdomen just below the naval and finds two fallopian tubes with the help of laparoscope. After that every fallopian tube is closed with a clip or a ring. This should be done after thirty or forty days of the delivery or within five to eight days of the menstruation.
Every effort is underway to integrate gender issues in various development programs in Nepal.Government of Nepal is trying to incorporate all the aspects concerning women on various policies and programs.
Women health and reproductive health
In our society, women are discriminated and given less priority than man. Women have very few rights on matters relating to child birth, looking after a child, and educating a child. Following steps should be taken to overcome all theses problems:
Women and civil code
There is equal rights of every citizen and there is no discrimination against any citizen according to The Constitution of Nepal. It has provide equal rights to male and female. In the Interim Constitution of Nepal, 2063, equal status of women has been established by amending limited rights of women on citizenship, employment, property etc. Women Commission has been established to give equal rights to women and also for the welfare of the women. Though rules and laws seem to have greater provisions, the implementation of theses provisions is weak.
Women and violence
Violence can be defined as the activities that damage the physical and mental states. The acts of violence may be non-cooperation, trafficking , pressurizing etc. Women are found to suffer at homes and societies from different types of violence.
Some examples of violence against women are as follows:
Women and property right
We can still find gender discrimination in our society. Women are not given equal shares in productive works. They do not have equal shares in property right.
Some comments on the women's property rights are as follows:
Gender advocacy refers to the discussion in various aspect based on gender in society. The discussion is mainly focused on the issues of male and female. It includes the role of male and female, social change, socialization, discrimination from gender perspective etc as the major aspects of the discussion. The kind of discussion and interaction is conducted with the aim of increasing awareness, empowering with rights and increasing the participation in various activities. These kinds of activities ultimately help and promote in the formation of gender related programmes, policies and laws and implement them effectively.Gender advocacy should be launched focusing on social inequality, events, social obstacles related to gender.
Identification of problem
First of all, gender issues for gender advocacy should be identified. It can be identified with the discussion of stakeholders. The depth of subject matter and impact to the society should be made clear. The issue for advocacy should be selected for the social welfare rather than personal welfare.
Creation of source
Various sources such as human, financial, physical facilities of advocacy what is its scope, how much resources are too launched and information related gender issues are to be disseminated in the magazine, poster, photograph, radio and television. The gender advocacy becomes highly successful if all resources are collected and mobilized on time.
Program conduction is basic for advocacy program. Program should have definite purposeless and practical value. Various concerned persons and community should be involved in the programmes. Involvement cooperates to make the advocacy program successful.
Monitoring and evaluation
The most important thing is the impact of advocacy in the society. Monitoring and evaluation is necessary in order to identify the impact of the program. A survey can also be conducted. After monitoring, evaluation can be done to assess the impact of advocacy program on the target women. Next program can be made on the basic of the achievement made by the advocacy. Cooperation of all concerned can make gender advocacy highly successful.