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Our Past

Published by: Nuru

Published Date: 06 Jul 2021

Our Past in Class 10 Social Studies

Political Activities Between 2007 B.S. and 2017

B.S.

The Rana regime ended on 7th Falgun, 2007 B.S., and democracy was declared. Party politics began in Nepal in the leadership of the Nepali Congress and Nepal Communist Party. The decade between 2007 B.S. to 2017 B.S. is thus known as the party and democratic politics history. The interim government rule was started on 17th Chaitra, 2007 B.S. with a coalition between Nepali Congress and Ranas. This ensured a citizen's involvement in government rules and laws. In 2008 B.S., student leader Chiniya Kaji was killed. The Ranas and Congress passed the blame to each other. They were not on good terms since the beginning of the coalition. B.P. Koirala issued a statement saying that democracy couldn’t be properly achieved if Mohan Shamser was in the ministry cabinet. Speaking to the Radio, he expressed his dissatisfaction that the true result of the revolution couldn’t be met until the Ranas were still in the ruling government. On 25th Kartik 2008 B.S., the 5 ministers representing Nepali Congress gave their resignations from the government. The day after, Mohan Shamser was forced to resign as well and the ministry cabinet was dissolved.

Singular Nepali Congress Ministry Cabinet:

After the joint coalition government failed, King Tribhuwan announced a 14 member ministry on 1st Mangsir 2008 B.S. led by Matrika Prasad Koirala. The following were the target of this cabinet:

  1. Creating an independent Judicial System
  2. Properly implement the Public Service Commission
  3. Conduct an election to create the parliament house by 2009 B.S.
  4. Ensure citizen civil rights.

Call for a Democratic United Front and All-Party Government:

The Democratic United Front was formed with the involvement of various parties and organizations existing then including Nepal Praja Parisad. They put pressure on the government for an all-party government. B.P Koirala was against his own brother, Prime Minister Matrika, saying that the party president and Prime Minister could not be the same person. Dr. KI Singh had started his revolution by then. This was the reason he was captured, branded a dacoit, and imprisoned in Singha Durbar. On 8th and 9th Magh of 2008 B.S., Dr. KI Singh supporters stormed and attacked Singha Durbar and freed him. This marked the end of the government yet again.

Consulting Donors Government Formation:

King Tribhuwan, according to advice from his consulting donors, formed a 5 member government including Keshar Shamser on 30th Shrawan 2009 B.S. The 5 members would answer only to the king and had to get permission from the king to implement any plans. The political parties were against this government. The government organs could not function properly by this system. The international intervention also increased. Farmers revolted in the east led by Nepali Congress. Finally, this government was dissolved on 2nd Aswin 2010 B.S.

Rashtriya Praja Party-led Government:

Matrika Prasad Koirala had separated from Nepali Congress and formed Rashtriya Praja Party. King Tribhuwan announced the 5 member government led by Matrika Pd. Koirala on 2nd Aswin 2010 B.S. Entry of Indian Army in Nepal with arms, protests against the Koshi Planning Agreement, BhimDutta Panta’s revolution, and his death in 7th Bhadra 2010 B.S. in Dadheldhura, etc. were the mitigating factors for the end of this government. Matrika Pd. Koirala submitted his resignation on 19th Falgun 2011 B.S.

King Mahendra’s Direct Rule and Royal Advisors Government:

King Tribhuwan deceased on 30th Falgun 2011 B.S. and his son Mahendra was crowned the king on 4th Chaitra 2012 B.S. Mahendra formed an advisory government on 1st Baishakh 2012 B.S. under the leadership of Sardar Gunjan Singh. King Mahendra started direct rule seeking advice from the 5 member committee. This government was run until 12th Magh 2012 B.S.

Tanka Prasad and Dr. KI Singh led Governments:

A 7 member government was formed on 13th Magh 2012 B.S. under the leadership of Tanka Prasad Acharya. Extreme economic depression, ban on newspapers and media, and failure to conduct elections led to Tanka Prasad’s resignation. This government was dissolved on 31st Asar 2014 B.S. King Mahendra then recalled Dr. KI Singh, who was living in China as an exile, and formed an 11 member government under his leadership on 11th Shrawan 2014 B.S. Due to various misfortunes, this government was removed on 29th Kartik 2014 B.S.

Subarna Shamser led Government:

King Mahendra ruled directly from 29th Kartik 2014 B.S. to 2nd Jestha 2015 B.S. An interim government was formed including 6 members on 2nd Jestha 2015 B.S. led by Subarna Shamser. A 5 member constitution development committee was formed on 3rd Chaitra 2015 under the leadership of Bhagwati Prasad Singh, and including some foreign aides. This committee prepared a constitution and it was declared as Nepal’s Constitution 2015 B.S. on 1st Falgun 2015 B.S. A general election was held from 7th Falgun 2015 B.S. for 109 constituencies. This government was dissolved on 2nd Jestha 2016 B.S.

First General Election and BP Koirala led First Elected Government: The first constitutional general election was fought for 109 seats. Only 9 political parties participated in this election. The final result of this election was announced on 28th Baishakh 2016 B.S. Nepali Congress won 74 seats out of 109 seats. BP Koirala was elected the Prime Minister and a 19 member government was formed on 13th Jestha 2016 B.S. This government was in effect until 1st Poush 2017 B.S.

Revolution of 2007 B.S. and Delhi Agreement

The aristocratic Rana regime that began from 2nd Aswin, 1903 B.S. existed for 104 years in Nepal. The lack of public consciousness was the main reason that there were no revolts against the Rana regime. But slowly with citizens becoming more conscious, there was collective resistance all over. Founded in 1988 B.S., Prachanda Gorkha was the first revolutionary group to go against Ranas. But their activities weren’t very effective. Five people formed Nepal’s first political party in Ombahal in 20th Jestha, 1993 B.S. named “Praja Parisad Party.” The founding members were Tanka Prasad Acharya(President), Dashrath Chand(Vice-President), Ramhari Sharma(General Secretary), Dharmabhakta Mathema and Jeevraj Sharma. Four people achieved martyrdom in 1997 B.S. because of their anti-Rana propaganda.
 

The then King Tribhuwan also was the victim of the autocratic rule. So he supported the anti-Rana activities morally as well as financially in secret. The formation of the Nepali National Congress Party in 2003 B.S. and Nepal Communist Party in 2006 B.S. further supported the revolution against the Rana regime. The “Jayatu Sanskritam Andolan” started in Jestha 2004 B.S. in Sanskrit Pathshala, Teendhara by students also spread the revolutionary mentality among the general population.

Reasons for the 2007 revolution

  1. Injustice and economic, social, cultural exploitation by the Ranas.
  2. Poverty and unemployment.
  3. Internal tension among the Ranas.
  4. Formation of political parties and strikes.
  5. Increase in political consciousness among citizens.
  6. Second World War and worldwide spreading democratic rules.

Armed Revolution and Main Events

The general assembly of the Nepali Congress in 11th-12th Aswin, 2007 B.S. in Bairganiya declared armed resistance against the Rana regime. The revolution was announced on 21st Kartik, 2007 B.S. In that time, King Tribhuwan also fled to Delhi in 23rd Kartik with his family to support the revolution. The then Prime Minister Mohan Shamser crowned King Tribhuwan’s 4-year-old grandson Gyanendra as the king. This led to national and international criticism of Mohan Shamser.

The political freedom faction of the Nepali Congress overtook Biratnagar and surrounding areas first. Thirbam Malla and Puran Singh led the revolution in Birgunj. Thirbam Malla was killed during the protests. Dr. Kuwar Indrajeet (K.I.) Singh revolted in the western areas. His faction achieved a big win in Bhairahawa. BP Koirala and Subarna Shamser who led the eastern resistance captured many areas without any fighting.

The “Mukti Sena” liberated many areas from east to west and formed local governments, and announced that they wouldn’t pay taxes to the Ranas. This limited the reach of the Rana regime to Kathmandu only. When the situation turned deadly, Mohan Shamser asked India to be a mediator in talks and sent his son Bijay Shamser to India as a representative. The then Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru acted as the mediator and the Delhi Agreement was formed between Rana regime, Nepali Congress, and King Tribhuwan on 1st Falgun, 2007 B.S. (12th February 1951 A.D.) King Tribhuwan returned to Nepal on 4th Falgun and democracy was declared on 7th Falgun, 2007 B.S. This was the end of the 104 years long Rana regime and beginning of democratic Nepal.

Main points of the Delhi Agreement:

  1. Constitution to be introduced by the Constituent Assembly voted by the citizens.
  2. Formation of an interim government with 10 members (5 from Nepali Congress and 5 from Ranas).
  3. Tribhuvan shall be King of Nepal, and all rights are taken from the Ranas and given to the king.
  4. All the political prisoners to be freed.
  5. All arms and weapons used in the revolution to be submitted to the government and the revolution to be stopped immediately.

Dr. KI Singh was against this agreement. He didn’t want any part of the Rana regime to remain in power and wanted to banish them completely. He announced that the revolution would not stop in the western areas where he had commanded. He didn’t stop the revolution and disobeyed King Tribhuwan’s message to stop. He was tried for treason because of this.

The 10 member Interim Government

From the Ranas:

  1. Mohan Shamser – Prime Minister
  2. Babar Shamser – Defense Minister
  3. Chudaraj Shamser – Forestry Minister
  4. Nripjung Shamser – Education Minister
  5. Yagya Bahadur Basnet – Health Minister

From Nepali Congress:

  1. BP Koirala – Home Minister
  2. Subarna Shamser – Finance Minister
  3. Ganeshman Singh – Industry and Commerce Minister
  4. Bhadrakali Mishra – Transportation Minister
  5. Bharatmani Sharma - Food and Agriculture Minister

Causes of the First World War

A situation in which almost all the countries of the world are directly or indirectly involved in armed fighting against their rivals block is called world war. One block countries may give arms, money, send military forces to the battlefront for fighting against the military of the rival block. In 1914, the world was affected by a serious war which is known as the First World War.

Causes of the First World War

1. Group:

One of the important and most responsible factors that caused the fierce and most destructive First World War was Groupism. The group was started by German chancellor Otto Von Bismarck. He sowed the seeds of the first world war. During that period, Germany, Italy, and Austria made triple alliances and England and Japan had hostility between them so, the whole Europe was divided into two blocks: because of that division the doubt and enmity arose among the countries of Europe which finally caused the enormous and destructive World War from European countries.

2. Militarism:

The other important factor that caused the world war was militarism. Both the hostile blocks were in a fear-filled with suspicion and hatred against each other. They started to increase the number of armies and developed dangerous weapons as they felt unsecured which also came to be known as the cause of the war.

3. Economic Imperialism:

The countries in Europe were in search of a good market to supply their productions after the industrial revolution in Europe. The European countries also wanted to raise their economic status and size of the army and produce harmful weapons. The competition of imperialism and colonialism began in Europe that made the cold relationship among the countries which led to the path of destructive wars because of these reasons.

4. The character of William-II:

William II-(The Emperor of Germany) wanted to make Germany a powerful country in the world. His principle was World power of downfall. He wanted to be more powerful than the U.K. So, the relationship between Germany and U.K was cold which enriched them to involve in the first world war.

5. Issue of Bosnia and Herzegovina:

Bosnia and Herzegovina (the two Balkan countries) were kept in Austria by the Berlin Convention of 1878 A.D. But, most of the people in Bosnia and Herzegovina were of the Serbian race. Due to these reasons, there was frequent rebellions and revolt against Austria.

6. The problem of Balkan:

Serbia, Greece, and Bulgaria were under turkey which was called the Ottoman Emperor. These states wanted independence because of the despotic rule of Turkey due to the right of nationalism. Islam made the Christians their victims. So, there was a frequent war in the Balkan region. So, to initiate the first world war, Balkan countries were also responsible.

7. Stern Nationalism and Newspaper:

Extreme nationalism was developed by Germany. They had the arrogance that they were the superior race and born to rule the world. Germany and U.K had hatred and France and Germany had enmity. The countries used to publish false news to provoke the people's spirit against the enemy countries.

8.The Immediate Cause:

Archduke Franz Ferdinand (the prince of Austria-Hungary) along with his wife Sophie Chotek was visiting Sarajevo, the capital city of Bosnia. 19 years old student, a member of the black-hand group named Gavrilo Prince killed the couple by shooting the couple from behind during their visit. The incident was named as the immediate cause of the war. After a month of the murder of the couple, the emperor of Austria-Hungary, Franz Joseph, with the support of Germany, sent a telegram to Serbian king, Peter Blaming on 25th July 1914, that his government was responsible for the murder of a couple of Austria Princess. The telegram contained the following:

Serbia should give permission to Austro-Hungarian authorities to monitor the suppression of the black hand society and investigate criminal activities. Serbia must suppress the Black Hand Society and Serbia must respond to the terms of ultimatum within 48 hours. On 27th July 1914, King Peter of Serbia replied stating that the members of the black hand could be suppressed, but the authorities of Austria-Hungary would not be allowed in Serbia to monitor the investigation. So, formally the Austrian government declared war against Serbia on 28th July 1914 and initiated the destructive and enormous the First World War.

Causes of the Second World War

The war that started on 1st September 1939 A.D. and spread worldwide and lasted till 1945 A.D. causing huge destruction of lives and properties is known as Second World War. The following are the major causes of the war:

1. Treaty of Versailles

At the end of the first world war, a treaty was signed between the Allies group and Germany where Germany was badly humiliated. Germany had to accept the treaty with a knife in the throat. There was a huge restriction in terms of military, weapons manufacturing, and also had to pay 660 million pounds to Allies as war compensation. Such humiliation was not tolerable by the German people. This feeling of revenge led to the support of Adolf Hitler, who threatened world peace by violating the treaty that opened the door for the second world war.

2. Rise of Hitler and Militarism

After World War I, German people suffered from several problems like unemployment. But Hitler established an arms industry which became a source of employment for many German people. Then, he violated the treaty by not paying war compensation. The hardship caused due to World War I was not tolerable by German people and it led to an increase in support to Hitler and his National Socialist Party (Nazi). When he got a majority in the German parliament and formed the government, he suspended the constitution and started to rule as a dictator. He captured Rhineland, increased his army, and started to annex the German territories lost by Germany during the first world war. Further, Hitler annexed Czechoslovakia and attacked Austria. Such aggressive activities became the cause of the Second World War.

3. Rise of Communism

After the October Revolution of Russia in 1917 AD, the influence of communism spread widely around the world. To stop the influence in Europe, Japan and Germany had signed a treaty in 1936 AD called Anti Comintern Pact. In 1937 AD, Italy joined the treaty and was called the Rome-Berlin-Tokyo axis. After its formation, the countries started colonialism. America, France, and Britain did not pay attention to thinking that it would stop the spread of communism. But the Axis started to fulfill their personal interest which caused a disturbance in world peace.

4. Economic Crisis and Rise of Dictators

During the first world war, a large number of youths were killed. The scarcity of manpower was caused. Lack of production in factories caused hunger and starvation led to economic crisis worldwide. In such a transitional period, the dictators won the heart of people by their attractive slogans. So, Hitler came into power in Germany, General Franco in Spain, and Mussolini in Italy. Then the treaty was violated by all and no one could stop or check them.

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5. The ambition of expansion:

The European countries like Britain, France had vast territories. Germany, Italy, and Japan also wanted to colonize the other territories. To fulfill their dream, Germany occupied Austria, Italy occupied Ethiopia and Japan invaded Manchuria of China. Such an attitude of expansion created unhealthy competition and rivalry among the countries. The European power was divided into two groups: Axis and Allies. During the 2nd World War, Britain, France, the USA, and Russia fought from the Allies side whereas Germany, Italy, Japan, and Spain fought from the Axis side.

6. Failure of League of Nations

League of Nations was established to prevent the world from wars and maintain world peace. But Woodrow Wilson, who was the idea maker, his country USA never got the membership of the organization which weakened the organization and became the cause of the second world war.

7. Immediate Cause (Attack on Poland)

In 1939 A.D., Hitler demanded Dazing and Polish Corridor as he wanted to have access to the sea. Furthermore, it was given to Poland after the Versailles treaty. So, Hitler signed a treaty with Russia, The Nazi-Soviet Pact, on 24th August 1939 where both the countries agreed to divide Poland and annex it to their territories. On 1st September 1939, Hitler invaded Poland. Britain and France jointly declared war against Germany and world war II started.

Consequences and Effects of the Second World War

The destructive and devastating war that took place from 1st September 1939 to 12th September 1945 is known as the Second World War. There were great changes that occurred after the war. Some of them are:

1. Heavy Loss of Lives

About 12 million soldiers were killed and 25 million civilians were killed because of hunger, diseases, etc. About 24 million people became injured and handicapped in the battle. The atomic bombs dropped by the US in Hiroshima and Nagasaki resulted in 160,000 casualties and destroyed the whole city. As a whole, the Second World War was a very bad tragedy for mankind.

2. Loss of Property

The Second World War destroyed a huge amount of properties. It was estimated that 1000 billion dollars were spent in the war. America alone had spent 350 billion dollars. The war had completely or partially destroyed buildings, roads, infrastructures, warships, and fighter planes.

3. Division of World Into Two Blocks and Beginning of the Cold War

The Second World War resulted in the division of the world into two blocks: capitalist and communist. The capitalist block was led by the USA whereas the communist block was led by Russia. They started criticizing each other and resulted in the cold war. During the period of the cold war, nuclear weapons were made which can cause heavy destruction in a very short time.

4. The wave of Democratic Changes in the World

Most of the countries got freedom and democracy after the second world war. Imperialism was ended. People of many countries became aware of the undemocratic system and fought for democracy and independence.

5. End of Colonialism

The imperialist countries became very weak after the second world war. National movements against colonialism started in Asia and Africa due to which countries like India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Egypt got independence from the British Empire. Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos got freedom from the French empire.
 

6. Truman's Declaration of Faith

After the second world war, Harry Truman, the then president of the USA declared to support war victim countries of Europe economically so as to stop the influence of communism. This declaration is called Truman's declaration.

7. The Marshall Plan

After the Second world war, when Truman's declaration was done, George Marshall, the US foreign minister made a plan to support war victim countries. This plan is known as the Marshall Plan as it was planned by George Marshall. About 12.5 billion dollars was spent by the US to reconstruct the European countries destroyed from the Second World War. More than 17 countries were reconstructed in terms of foodstuff, agriculture, transportation, etc.
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8. The Molotov Plan (COMECON)

After the Second World War, the USSR had established the Council Of Mutual Assistance to provide economic assistance to the European countries in 1949. This plan was proposed by Molotov, the foreign minister of the USSR. The main objective of this plan was to support the European countries and to develop their trade and commerce.

9. Establishment of the United Nations Organization (UNO)
establishment of UNO

After one month of the end of the war, the United Nations was established on 24th October 1945. The League of Nations was established to prevent the world from war but it was unsuccessful. So, 4 years after the Atlantic Charter was signed by Franklin D Roosevelt and Winston Churchill, the UN was established. The main objective of this organization is to maintain world peace and prevent the world from wars and terrible destruction.

Impact of the Second World War in Nepal

Nepal got both positive and negative impact of the Second World War. Nepal also got changes in politics, economic, and social status.

  1. Nepalese soldiers were awarded world-famous awards like 'Victoria Cross' and 'Military Cross' for fighting bravely from the side of the British.
  2. Nepal was able to earn both name and fame for her honesty, bravery and loyalty.
  3. Due to the recruitment of Nepalese in the British army, it became a source of economy for many Nepalese youths.
  4. Nepalese people got awareness against imperialism, an autocratic rule which helped in the establishment of democracy in Nepal.
  5. Nepal was given economic aid by the British government as she promised the payment of 1 million rupees to Nepal every year.
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Negative Impacts of Second World War

Nepal was badly affected by the Second World War. Juddha Shumsher had sent 250,000 Nepali soldiers to fight from the British side. Among them, 7544 were killed or disappeared, 23,655 were badly injured. Nepal used to export copper in a huge amount to Europe. But after the war, the European countries themselves started to explore mineral resources.

Political Activities Between 2017 B.S. to 2046 B.S.

From 22nd Poush 2017 B.S., replacing the parliamentary democracy with the Panchayat system, King Mahendra adopted a measure to strengthen his direct rule. He established the Panchayat Ministry. The country was divided into 14 Zones and 75 Districts. The constitution of Nepal 2019 B.S. gave the party-less system legal support.

Some important events that occurred in Nepal’s history:

1. Janakpur Incident

King Mahendra was at Janaki Temple, Janakpur after his Eastern Nepal visit on 9th Magh 2018 B.S. The anti-panchayat coalition led by Durgananda Jha hurled a bomb at his jeep. The king had a narrow escape. This incident is known as Janakpur Incident. Durgananda was arrested along with two other men, Arabinda Kumar Thakur and Dalsingh Thapa. Durgananda Jha was hanged to death on 25th Magh 2020 B.S. and the remaining two were sentenced to life imprisonment.

In 2020 B.S., the Muluki Ain was changed. It ensured that everyone was equal in law. Child marriage was banned and divorce was allowed. The first amendment to the constitution on 2019 BS was made in 2023 BS.

2. Death of King Mahendra

In 2028 BS King Mahendra was in Chitwan for hunting. There he died suddenly of heart attack at Diyala Bungalow. After his death, the Crown Prince Birendra became the king of Nepal.

3. Jhapa Revolt and Sukhani Massacre

The then Nepali Communist Party (Marxist Leninist) started a revolt against the government from Jhapa. End to barbaric rule and freedom for poor was the main motto of the revolt. Some youths were captured for the alleged murder of then Panchayat member Dharma Prasad Upadhyaya. The arrested were Ramnath Dahal, Narayan Shrestha, Krishna Kuinkel, Netra Prasad Ghimire, and Biren Rajbanshi, and they were brought to Sukhani in Illam. They were shot to death on 21st Falgun 2029 B.S. and this event is remembered as Sukhani Massacre.

4. Airplane Hijacking Incident and the Singh Durbar Blaze

An airplane flown from Biratnagar to Kathmandu on 25th Jestha 2030 B.S. was hijacked and forced to land at Farbisgunj, Bihar in India. The IC 3 million that was being transported was taken and the plane freed. This was the first time ever that a plane had been hijacked in Nepal. This anti-Panchayat System incident gave the government a big shock.

Singh Durbar caught fire on 25th Asar and many documents of national importance were burned into ashes. How it happened was a mystery and then Prime Minister Kirti Nidhi Bista resigned on moral grounds.

5. Timburbote Incident

In 2031 B.S., the Panchayat government received news that many revolutionaries were planning to capture Okhaldhunga. The army was sent to intervene and they brutally killed many revolutionaries like Ram, Laxman, and other youths. Captain Yagya Bahadur Thapa and Bhim Narayan Shrestha were captured and given death sentences on 2033 B.S. This carnage is known as the Timburbote Incident.

Later on 26 Mangsir, 2032 the second amendment to the Panchayat constitution was made and it incorporated a new slogan “Politics for Development”. This amendment also made “Back to Village National Campaign” a constitutional organ.

6. Ratna Kumar Bantawa Incident

Ratna Kumar Bantawa was an active communist leader. The Panchayati rulers captured him and shot him on 27th Chaitra 2035 B.S. at Image, Illam, near DeuMai River. Other leaders Rishiraj Devkota (Aajad) and Jaygovinda Shah were also killed during the Panchayati system.

7. The 2046 B.S. Referendum
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On Chaitra 22, 2035 the military government of Pakistan executed the former Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali. Here in Kathmandu, the Nepali students organized a huge procession in protest of the execution and were proceeding towards the Pakistani Embassy to deliver a letter of condemnation but the police resorted to violence and stopped them. Many students were injured in the clash. This further agitated the students and gave birth to a student movement.

In the beginning, the demands were directed towards educational reformations but, later on, they become political. The movement turned violent as political parties with more extreme characters also participated.

At last on 10th Jestha 2036 B.S., King Birendra had to announce a referendum asking people to choose between “Reformed Panchayat System” and “Multiparty Democracy”. A 15-member National Election Commission under Chief Justice Bhagwati Prasad Singh was formed to conduct the poll which was held on 20th Baisakh 2037 B.S. The vote went in favor of the Reformed Panchayat System by 10% more votes. The election for the National Panchayat (the then parliament) was held on 2038 B.S.

8. Piskar Massacre

After the election for the National Panchayat, Surya Bahadur Thapa became the Prime Minister. A cultural program was being held in Piskar Mahadev of Sindhupalchowk to increase awareness against the Panchayati system. The area was surrounded by the police and they began firing at random. Many people, including children, were killed and numerous were captured and tortured. This incident is known as the Piskar Massacre.

Then the members of the National Panchayat passed a no-confidence motion against Prime Minister Surya Bahadur Thapa and he was replaced by Lokendra Bahadur Chand.

9. Satyagraha and Bombings

The Nepali congress started Satyagraha (non-violent fight for the truth) from 10th Jestha 2042 B.S. throughout the country. While this was going on, bombings in Narayanhiti Royal Palace of Kathmandu, Pokhara, and other places shook the country. Democratic leader Ram Raja Prasad Singh took the blame for the blasts. The government captured Ram Raja Prasad Singh, Lakshman Prasad Singh, Prem Bahadur Bishwakarma, and others and sentenced them to death. The Nepali Congress had to stop the Satyagraha.

10. The 2046 B.S. Revolution

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The Nepali Congress held its national convention at Ganesh Man Singh’s residence on 5th Magh to 7th Magh 2046 B.S. The convention was also attended by some top Indian leaders like Chandrashekhar, Dr. Subramanian Swami, Harkishan Singh Surjit, M.K. Akbar, and the member of the leftist party of Nepal. In order to make the movement a success, seven communist parties formed the United Leftist Front (Samyukta Bam Morcha) under the leadership of Sahana Pradhan. The objective of the movement was the restoration of multiparty democracy and human rights. An agreement was reached between the Nepali Congress and the Leftist Front to launch the mass movement jointly.

On Falgun 7, 2046 B.S. the countrywide mass movement commenced. There were clashes between the agitators and the Panchas in many places. Many leaders were arrested. The government tried to suppress the agitations using sticks and guns. About 8 persons were killed. Nepal Strike (Nepal Bandh) of 8th, 19th Falgun, and 1st Chaitra were unprecedentedly successful. Programs of slogans, processions, blackouts, pen downs, etc. were organized throughout the country. The movement became very strong. Dozens of people were shot dead in Kirtipur due to random firing. On 24th Chaitra 2046 B.S. the king dismissed the Maricha Man Singh cabinet and appointed Lokendra Bahadur Chand. In his speech, he intended to reform the Panchayat System. In protest of the King’s announcement, hundreds of thousands of people assembled in Kathmandu.

The government ordered firing in which many demonstrators were killed. Curfews were imposed but no one obeyed the orders. These were outwardly disobeyed. At last on 26th Chaitra 2046 B.S., the King invited Krishna Prasad Bhattarai, Girija Prasad Koirala, Sahana Pradhan, and Radha Krishna Mainali for a talk. They unanimously reiterated their demand for the multiparty system. So around midnight, the King gave a public speech announcing the lift of the ban on political parties. By this virtue, the 49-day mass movement the Panchayat System was abolished and the multiparty system was restored in the country.

Reasons for the Rise and Fall of the Panchayati System

There was a big weakness after the 2007 B.S. proclamation of democracy. It did mark the end of the barbaric Rana regime, but the power of the government was still not distributed among the citizens. They were still not getting any rights that they were entitled to. Instead they got another barbaric rule in the form of monarchy, and this was given constitutional support and strengthened.

Constitution was not written from the constituent assembly and the Delhi agreement was not followed. Kings worked to get more power themselves and the public was not a priority. Political parties were also less experienced and immature at that time. As a result, King Mahendra sought more power to become the most powerful entity in the country. He didn’t believe in democracy since he was a teenager Crown Prince. On the other hand, new constitutional assembly, bad relations between political parties, etc. were the reason for favorable conditions for the Panchayati system to rise. The public was less aware and illiteracy was everywhere. Foreign interest and intervention also were increasing, as was corruption and procrastination. In such conditions, King Mahendra hijacked the democratic rule and took power into his own hands-on 1st Poush 2017 B.S. and declared a partyless Panchayati system from 22nd Poush 2017 B.S.

The Panchayati system was a singular system run from the central power structure, in this case, the King. The orders received from the upper power level had to be followed. The worst aspect of this system was that it was a dictatorship. The system made sure that the citizens didn’t get any human rights, basic rights or freedom.

There were many reasons behind the fall of the Panchayati rule. The government suppressed any form of protests. The people were slowly becoming more aware and literate. The public was angered by this suppression from the Panchayati government. But the people running this system were divided into two factions. One wanted to genuinely help the people, but the other wanted to garner more power. They were more focused on getting more power instead of working for the wellness of the citizens and the development of the country. Corruption was rampant in the country.

The various communist factions united as one and formed the United Leftist Front. Nepali Congress and Nepal Communist Party set aside their different views and together agreed to fight a revolution against the Panchayati system. The result was that the general public was increasing to support political parties. The people's movement was announced from 7th Falgun 2046 B.S. and there were various strikes and protests all around the country. The citizens poured onto the streets disobeying the curfew set by the government. Finally on 26th Chaitra 2046 B.S., King Birendra issued a radio broadcast at 11 pm and declared that the Panchayati system was ended and democracy was re-established. The revolution of 2046 B.S. effectively ended the Panchayati rule.

Political Activities from 2046 B.S. to 2062 B.S.

The ban on political parties was lifted on 26th Chaitra 2046 B.S. The people were celebrating on the streets. A victory rally was held in Kathmandu on 27th Chaitra and people gathered all around. An interim government was formed with Krishna Pd. Bhattarai as the Prime Minister. The members of this government were various protesting political parties, people nominated by the King, and independent candidates. This government was tasked with creating a multiparty favorable constitution and conducting the general election.

The constitution advisory commission was created led by Bishwa Nath Upadhyaya to build a constitution that respects the revolution and favors civil rights. The commission prepared a draft and submitted it to the King. On 23rd Kartik 2047 B.S., King Birendra announced the Constitution of Nepal 2047 B.S. The constitutional monarchy came into effect from that day onwards. The general election was successfully held and Nepali Congress won the majority of the votes. Girija Pd. Koirala was appointed the Prime Minister.

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Constitution of Nepal 2047 B.S. was promulgated by King Birendra on Kartik 23, 2047 B.S. which has 23 parts, 133 articles, and 3 schedules. The main features of the constitution are as follows:

  1. Constitution, the source of all laws
  2. Sovereignty inherent in people
  3. Multiparty democracy and constitutional monarchy
  4. Bicameral parliament
  5. Provision of fundamental rights and human rights
  6. Provision of constitutional organs
  7. Independent Judiciary
  8. Adult franchise

Due to internal conflicts, this government was disbanded without completing its full term. The midterm elections for the constituent assembly were held on Kartik 2051 B.S. No party could achieve majority votes. Communist Party of Nepal (United Marxist Leninist) president Manmohan Adhikari was elected the Prime Minister. There were various governments being set up and getting dissolved after this.

The then Nepal Communist Party (Maoist) started armed resistance against the constitution and the existing monarchy from 1st Falgun 2052 B.S. The Narayanhiti Massacre occurred on 19th Jestha 2059 B.S. that ended the royal family of King Birendra. This event effectively changed the political atmosphere of Nepal. King Birendra’s younger brother Gyanendra succeeded in the royal throne. King Gyanendra removed the then Prime Minister Sher Bd. Deuba from the cabinet and took complete power within his hands on 18th Aswin 2059 B.S. He further announced that political leaders from major pa

parties were put on house arrest from 19th Magh 2061 B.S. He also announced that the complete executive rights had been taken back and he was the sole ruler.

Political parties were angered by this decision. The revolting CPN Maoist was further agitated by this decision. Seven political parties and CPN Maoist reached a 12 point agreement in Delhi to conduct a peaceful revolution against the King’s decisions. Accordingly, the second civil revolution began from 24th Chaitra 2062 B.S. This Second People's Movement began to affect every sector, and the general public poured onto the streets in huge numbers. There were protests for 19 days all over the country against the monarchy. Finally the King was forced to step down.
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Keeping in mind the ongoing movement, King Gyanendra made a public announcement on 11th Baishakh 2063 B.S. He agreed to meet the demands put forth by the protesting parties, and republic democracy was established. The constituent assembly was revived to hold elections and build the constitution.

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Ban on Political Parties & Socio-Economic Achievements from 2007-2017 B.S.

Failure of the government of B.P Koirala

The government of BP Koirala could only rule for 18 months. The reasons for the failure of the government are:

  1. Sharp critics and the opposition party requested the king to dismiss the government.
  2. The ruling party neglected the voice of the people and the opposition.
  3. There was an internal conflict in the ruling party.
  4. King Mahendra was a power lover and he wanted to rule the country directly.
  5. There was lawlessness insecurity which helped King Mahendra to dissolve the government.
  6. Parties were involved in fulfilling their personal interest.
    BP Koirala

Blames imposed by the King before dissolving the government

The power was used to fulfill the personal interest of the individuals keeping the nation and the people aside.

  1. No rules and laws were respected by the people and the parties.
  2. The government tried to make the administration weak as they worked for their personal benefits
  3. forgetting people's sentiment and interest.
  4. Corruption was increased because of the misuse of power and authority.
  5. The government failed to maintain peace and order in the country.
  6. Anti-national elements increased and national unity was threatened.

King Mahendra, who didn't like the multi-party democracy, took the opportunity on Poush 1, 2017 B.S., and made a speech broadcast on the radio announcing his takeover.
Mahendra king

"Because of the misuse of the authority, corruption has increased, and there is anarchy in the nation so that national unity is threatened. Random economic decisions have caused instability. In order to protect national unity, create peace and cooperation, and to save the whole country we are forced to act according to Article 55 of the constitution and will suspend the cabinet, both houses of parliament and the party system. We will take sole responsibility as laid down in article 55 until a new system is put in place. With good wishes and support from all Nepalese, good governance will prove to be possible."

This announcement hijacked the democracy the Nepali people fought for years through blood, sweat and sacrifice. This day is remembered as Black Day in Nepalese history. The ban on political parties was also put into effect. The king had arrested Prime Minister BP Koirala, the ministers, and other leaders and put them in prison 4 hours prior to the announcement. Curfew was put outside the royal palace every night then onwards. This royal act is called the coup of 2017 BS. On Poush 1, 2017 BS he announced partyless Panchayat system.

Social and Economic Achievements from 2007 B.S. to 2017 B.S.

  1. Establishment of various friendly and diplomatic relations with foreign countries.
  2. Radio Nepal started its broadcasting service.
  3. Establishment of Padma Kanya Multiple Campus, the first women college of Nepal in Bagbazar.
  4. Paropakar Anathalaya was established by Dayabir Singh Kansakar.
  5. Many English medium schools were established. Similarly, the number of schools reached 4191
  6. whereas, during the Rana regime, the number of schools was only 335.
  7. Supreme Court was established.
  8. Law college was established.
  9. Tribhuvan University was established.
  10. Nepal became a member of the United Nations Organization (UNO) on 14th December 1955 A.D.
  11. The first elected government under Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala (B.P. Koirala) was formed.
  12. Multiparty democratic system was practiced.
  13. The first democratic constitution was formed.
  14. Hetauda ropeway began operation.
  15. Highways were built in Nepal.
     

Economic Achievements

  1. 5 Year Plan started for the first time from 22nd Aswin 2012 B.S. and implemented from 2013 B.S.
  2. Provision of Annual Budget started from 2008 B.S.
  3. Mohiyani Hak (Farmer’s Rights to land) was introduced from 17th Bhadra 2013 B.S.
  4. Nepal Rastra Bank (14th Baishakh 2013 B.S.) and Agricultural Development Bank were started.
  5. Tribhuvan Highway was constructed.
  6. Telephone and telegram services were started.
  7. The forest was nationalized.
  8. The system of Birta was abolished from2016 B.S.
  9. Through NIDC (Nepal Industrial Development Corporation) establishment of industries was encouraged.
    Vestablishment of industries

Question: If you were a member of a political party, what programs would you launch against King Mahendra's action?

Answer:

  1. I would aware people protest against the king's undemocratic step.
  2. I would organize a mass protest rally against the step of the king.
  3. I would distribute posters, pamphlets to aware people.
  4. I would inspire people so that they would create a strong protest without having the fear of being jailed.

Consequences and Effects of the First World War

consequences of world war I
World War I was fought very violently. Machine guns, grenades, airplanes, armored tanks, submarines, and poisonous gas such as chlorine caused unbelievable casualties. Armies fought in dreadful conditions such as in the muddy trenches against the barbed wire fence. Even civilians were injured in the war. As soldiers were killed and injured, older and younger men had to be dispatched.

In 1914 with appalling loss of life, Germany attacked Belgium and France but could not capture the Polish capital of Warsaw. In 1917, Russian armies quitted the battlefields due to a revolution in their land. The German attack on the US unarmed ships caused the United States to join the Allies in 1917. Finally, the Central Powers surrendered in autumn 1918. However, World War I was officially ended by an armistice signed in France on November 11.

After the defeat of Germany in World War I, the treaty was signed between the victorious allies and Germany in World War I, the treaty was signed between the victorious allies and Germany on June 28, 1919, the Treaty of Versailles in France. No Consultation was made with Germany. According to the treaty, Germany was blamed solely for the destruction and it was made to pay for the loss. Germany lost 13% of its land and 6 million people. It has to cede the following territories to different nations/organizations as specified.

Loss of Kingdom

  1. Alsace and Lorraine to France
  2. Eupen-Malmedy to Belgium
  3. North Schleswig to Denmark
  4. Posen and West Prussia to Poland
  5. Upper Silesia to Poland
  6. Saar and Danzig area to the league of Nations
  7. The city of Memel to Lithuania, a new Baltic state
  8. All overseas colonies to the league of Nations

Restriction on Military

  1. The German army was withdrawn from Rhineland; it was kept under Allied power for 15 years.
  2. Germany had to keep only 100,000 soldiers. New recruitment was restricted.
  3. Germany was not allowed to keep more than 24 warships.
  4. It was prohibited from manufacturing warships, tanks, and airplanes.

Compensation

  1. Germany had to pay gold and other things worth 660 million pounds for reparation.
  2. The coal production area of Saar was given to France for 15 years.

Consequences of World War I

1. Loss of Life

World War I was a large-scale war and first of its kind. Advanced warfare techniques used in the war which caused the horrible loss of lives and properties. More than 8 million people were killed, 6 million were badly injured and 13 million people received minor injuries.

2. Loss of Property

About 36 nations were involved in the war. According to great economists, the total direct cost of war stood at about $186 billion. A huge amount of property, difficult to exactly estimate, was destroyed.

3. Destruction of Industry

Due to bombardment, thousands of factories and buildings collapsed. Serbia, Romania, Belgium, France and England were very badly affected.

4. End of Despotic Rule

The Czar rule of Russia came to an end. Similarly monarchy was exterminated in Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey.

5. Rise of Republic

The Republican system of administration became popular in Europe. Russia, Germany, Poland, Austria, Lithuania, Latvia, Finland, Czechoslovakia, and Ukraine became a republic.

6. National Independence

The Treaty of Versailles accepted the victory of nationality. So that new nations like Czechoslovakia, Albania, Poland etc. emerged.

7. Shift of the World Power

Big empires like Austria-Hungary and Ottoman Empires were destroyed. America became the center of politics, military, and finance.

8. Social Consequences

Labour class became important. Social reforms were introduced. International Labour Organization (ILO) was formed. The feeling of cooperation grew. There were drastic decrements of the population due to low birth rates.

9. Development of Technology

Poisonous gases and medicines were invented. Ships, planes, submarines, etc. were widely used in wars.

10. Establishment of the League of Nation

For world peace and security organizations named the League of Nations was established which was the first international organization of the world. The assembly, the council, and the permanent court of justice were its organs.

Role of Nepal in World War I

Nepal helped Britain in the First World War. The then Prime Minister Chandra Shamsher sent 7,500 Nepalese troops under the command of Babar Shamsher to help the British government. After that, more troops were sent led by General Padma Shamser, Tej Shamser, and Keshar Shamser. It is recorded that Nepal sent 16,544 youths to fight in the war in favor of the United Kingdom. Nepal also financially supported Britain by sending 1,000,000 pounds. Nepalese forces showed bravery and determination in the war and were far renowned as the brave Gurkhas. Emperor Kaiser Wilhelm II has said, "I can send my army to fight any troop of the world but my heart shakes when I hear the name of Gorkhali soldiers." Britain, impressed by the help of Nepal, pledged to send Nepal Rs. 1,000,000 every year and made Chandra Shamser a general in the British Army. A number of brave Nepali soldiers were awarded Victoria Cross and Military Cross for their invaluable contributions.

Political Activities After 2062 B.S.

After the restoration of democracy, the first Representative Assembly meeting was held on 15th Baishakh 2063 B.S. Girija Pd. Koirala became the Prime Minister in the new government. The Representative Assembly gave a historic announcement on 4th Jestha and made the following changes.

  1. Nepal was declared a secular country.
  2. His Majesty’s Government was replaced by Nepal Government.
  3. All the powers of the King were suspended. His property was made taxable.
  4. Royal Nepal Army was named Nepal Army.
  5. The existing National Anthem was suspended.

After this proclamation, there was a big change in the political situation of Nepal. On 2nd Ashad 2063 B.S., an 8-point Agreement was reached between the seven political parties and CPN Maoist. On 5th Mangsir 2063 B.S., the Comprehensive Peace Accord was signed by the Maoist representative Pushpa Kamal Dahal and the government representative Girija Pd. Koirala, under UN mediation.

The Interim Constitution of Nepal 2063 B.S. was promulgated on 1st Magh 2063 B.S. The election for Constituent Assembly was completed on 28th Chaitra 2064 B.S. CPN Maoist won the majority votes. The first meeting of the assembly declared Nepal a republic and abolished monarchy on 15th Jestha 2065 B.S. This ended the monarchy rule in Nepal that had run for centuries. King Gyanendra made a public announcement from Narayanhiti Palace and left the royal throne of his own accord in a peaceful fashion. Two months later, Dr. Ram Baran Yadav was elected the first President of Nepal. CPN Maoist President Pushpa Kamal Dahal became the Prime Minister on 2nd Bhadra 2065 B.S.

Madhav Kumar Nepal became the Prime Minister of Nepal on 11th Jestha 2066 B.S. and Jhalanath Khanal became the Prime Minister on 23rd Magh 2067 B.S. Those governments had an essential role in completing the Comprehensive Peace Accord. Dr. Baburam Bhattarai became the Prime Minister on 12th Bhadra 2068 B.S. While on his term, the Constituent Assembly was dissolved on 14th Jestha 2069 B.S. The 4 years worth of agreements, cooperation and unity were uneventful to promulgate a constitution. An electoral government was formed led by Chief Justice Khila Raj Regmi for the sole purpose of conducting the second Constituent Assembly election on 1st Chaitra 2069 B.S. This government was successful in conducting the election.

The second Constituent Assembly election was held on 4th Mangsir 2070 B.S. Nepali Congress got the majority votes, and Sushil Koirala led the government formed on 27th Magh 2070 B.S. Cooperation between political parties, unity and nationalism towards the country speeded the constitution-writing process. Nepal faced the worst natural disaster in the form of strong earthquakes on 12th and 29th Baishakh 2072 B.S., which affected more than 14 districts directly. This disaster got the political parties to forget their rivalries and work together in the rescue and reconstruction efforts. This event created the environment for the constitution-writing process and development of the country.

President Ram Baran Yadav announced the Nepal Constitution 2072 B.S. on 3rd Aswin 2072 B.S. The citizens received a constitution written by their representatives finally, which they had been waiting for since establishment of democracy in 2007 B.S. Nepal became a Federal Democratic Republic country.

The work of the Constituent Assembly was done, so it was converted into the Administrative Assembly. Soon after the promulgation of the constitution, Nepal had to face a blockade from India. A new government was formed led by Khadka Pd. Oli on 24th Aswin 2072 B.S.

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Social and Economic Achievements after Second People’s Movement

The 19 days long Second People’s Movement in 2062/63 B.S. ended with the achievement of the Republic Democracy in Nepal. There were many political events that happened after that. There were many social and economic achievements. The first of it was equal and fair representation principle for any and all sectors. This meant that citizens from any backward community, from any area, speaking any language, of any gender, etc. were brought into the mainstream. Their participation was secured by putting an end to bias and discrimination.

Women, indigenous population, mathesis, Dalits, people with disabilities, or people from remote and backward areas were given rights and services according to percentage after the second People’s Movement. The quality of life of people increased due to development in education, employment, communications, transportation, etc. After the movement, the armed resistance was ended and peace was restored in Nepal. The developments of infrastructures were conducted easily after this. People were more aware of political situations now. Corruption reduced and literacy rate increased to above 65%. People got access to basic health services.

People used to act fiercely in their political beliefs. Nowadays they put aside their political beliefs to strengthen national unity and development. This has increased cooperation between citizens, increased harmonic relations, and increased helpfulness. This has helped in decreasing social evils and problems.

There were various economic achievements after the movement as well. Nepal started its time-centered development plans. Nepal is one of the fastest-growing economies in Asia. Many opportunities have opened set for foreign investments. There have been agreements like the Bilateral Investment Protection and Promotion Agreement (BIPPA), support grants, transit grants, etc. Poverty has decreased, but Nepal is still not self-sufficient in production and processing. The government’s priority is economic growth and self-employment. Big projects of national pride have been started. Foreign employment is being managed, and this will strengthen the country’s economic condition.

 

 

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