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Infrastructure For Development

Published by: Nuru

Published Date: 06 Jul 2021

Our Infrastructure For Development in Class 10 Social Studies

Sustainable Development

What is sustainable development?

The United Nations held a Human Environment conference from June 5-16, 1972 in Stockholm, Sweden. This conference tried to draft a plan for Human Sustainability. In 1983, the UN approved to creation of a program for Environment and Development. As a result, Butland Commission was formed in the same year. This commission presented a paper on “Our Common Future” in the 42nd UN General Meeting in 1987. The paper defines Sustainable Development as: “Development that meets the need of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”

Sustainable Development means searching for a direct balance between environment and development and finding the continued development criteria that the earth can support. In addition to that, development has to be done so that development in one area does not affect the development in another area.

Goals for Sustainable Development

  1. To eradicate poverty and hunger.
  2. For human development and progress.
  3. For effective conservation of the environment.
  4. To cautiously use natural resources and means.
  5. To gain high, stable, and sustainable economic growth.
  6. To work on equal opportunities for disabled people and women empowerment.

Features of Sustainable Development

1. It helps in the sustainable management of means and resources.
2. Create a better future for future generations.
3. Emphasizes on environmental conservation.
4. Obtains, utilizes, and conserves the means and resources available.
5. Handles fair distribution of means and resources.
6. Controls the over-utilization culture.
7. It helps in high and stable economic growth.
8. It helps to reduce, recycle, and reuse the main resources.

Factors of Sustainable Development

There are many factors for sustainable development. It is related to the social, cultural, economic, and human aspects of life. According to UNESCO, sustainable development depends on the social, economic, natural, and political aspects of a country. Social and cultural aspects include human community relations, cultural conservation, socio-cultural handovers, etc.

Development Projects in Nepal

With the aim to complete a project within a certain time, using a certain amount of resources and implemented in a variety of well-organized manner for the development are generalized as development projects. Development projects are small or large depending on the goals, investments, expected results, affected area, etc. Some projects are implemented at the local level, some in the state level, and some in the national level. National projects are organized if the project benefits the majority of people in the country and represents the national identity. National level projects require more resources and investment as compared to the regional and local level projects. These development projects have been renamed as Development Projects for National Pride. As of 2073 BS, there are 21 development projects for national pride. Such projects are added or removed with time.

Some development projects ongoing in Nepal are:

  1. President Chure Conservation Project
    This project is one of the country’s prestigious conservation projects. Its main goal is to solve the multilateral problems facing the Chure region. It also works to balance the environment and quality of life by preserving the biological diversity as well as the geographical, social, and economic aspects of the region. It was inaugurated in the fiscal year 2067/68 BS under the Forest and Land Conservation Ministry. It was then converted into the National Pride project in fiscal year 2070/71 BS. This area covers 12.78% of Nepal’s total area and is located at 200-2100m altitude, and extends from Illam in the east to Kanchanpur in the west. This area is covered by weak rocks and layered stones. President Terai Madhesh Chure Conservation Committee was formed to give power to the center.
  2. Pokhara Regional International Airport
    With the goal to make Pokhara a tourist destination at the international level, the airport is being built in Chhinedanda, Pokhara with a 3600 propane area. The foundation stone was put in Baishakh 1, 2073BS.  The project has a budget of Rs.20-30 crores and is estimated to have a concrete runway of 2500m length and 45m width. The project also will build taxi parking spaces, separate national and international terminals, air traffic control towers, a 50m air bridge, etc. The Chinese company is given the contract to build the airport, which is said to be able to land a 200 seater jet airplanes.
  3. Budi-Gandaki Hydro-electricity Project
    Budi-Gandaki is the national level project with a reservoir. It is situated 80km westwards from Kathmandu and lies in the border between Gorkha and Dhading. The project has the potential to generate 1200MW of electricity. The estimated investment is Rs. 25,495.5 crores, and was submitted by Budi Gandaki Hydroelectricity Project Development Committee. The investors from international platforms are The World Bank, International Finance Organization, Asian Development Bank, etc. The entirety of this project is run by and maintained by the Nepal government. The completion date for the project is estimated to be 8 years. This project is sought to be a good alternative solution to Nepal’s energy crisis.
  4. Mid-Hilly Highway (Pushpalal Marga)
    Similar to the East-West highway, this highway looks to join the hilly areas of the country to a common road network, which will speed up the development process in those areas. The construction of this highway is done completely by the Nepal government and started from the fiscal year 2064/65BS.  This highway will extend from Chiyo Bhanjyang in eastern hilly district Panchthar to Jhulaghat in western district Baitadi, totaling 1776kms. 23 districts in the hilly areas, 215 settlements, and nearly 70 lakh people are estimated to be connected via this highway. This highway also seeks to develop 10 different places into cities as per the Organized Urbanization Policy. 1,517kms of roads have already come into use as the policy to maximize the already existing roads, and the work is going to open up new tracks in other places. This project is estimated to be completed by the year 2074/75 BS.
  5. Upper Tamakoshi HydroElectricity Project
    The project generates electricity from the flow of the Tamakoshi River and is situated in the northern area of the Dolakha district. With the main location in LamaBagar, this project has the electricity generation potential of 456MW. Completely run by national investment, this project has been given the status of National Pride Development Project, and the electricity produced here will be cheaper in comparison to others. It was inaugurated by the Upper Tamakoshi HydroElectricity Limited organization in 2063BS. This project has financial support from Nepal Electricity Authority, Employees Provident Fund, Nepal Telecom, Citizens Investment Fund, Rastriya Beema Sansthan, etc.

Apart from these above-mentioned projects, various National Pride Projects are being run. Some of them are Koshi, KaliGandaki and Karnali Corridor, Hulaki Sadak, Kathmandu-Terai Fast Track, East-West Electrical Railway, Melamchi Drinking Water, Gautam Buddha International Airport, Nijgadh International Airport, Pashupati Area Development Fund, Lumbini Development Fund, West Seti Electricity Project, Bheri-Babai Diversion Multi-Purpose Project, etc.

Infrastructures for Development: Skilled Manpower and Employment


 Most essential things or services which are required for social, economic, cultural, development, to raise the living standard of the people is termed as infrastructures. For example education, transportation, communication etc.

Natural Resources:

Nature gifted things that are available in nature and used to carry out development activities are known as natural resources. Air, water, minerals, etc are some of the examples of Natural Resources.

Means and Resources:

Means and Resources are those things that are man-made (artificial) or natural and are utilized to perform development activities that are known as means and resources. Capital, Skilled human resources come under artificial and air, water comes under natural means and resources.

From education, we learn knowledge, skills, and aptitude and from training, we get skills associated with efficiency. And with education and training, a person with capacity, positive thinking, and willingness to work is called a skilled person. Skilled manpower means engineers, doctors, teachers, alumni plans, nurses, and more. Construction of any national development planning and implementation requires skilled manpower. World's developed countries are developed because of the adequate availability of skilled manpower. Developing countries often lack resources and skilled manpower resources and the mobilization of them is a substantial problem. Therefore these countries must seek compatibility with the country and prioritize education and produce skilled manpower.

Methods to produce skilled manpower

  1. Create policies with timely scientific education.
  2. Develop technical and behavioral education as needed in the country.
  3. Have proper higher level training.
  4. Familiarization with developed information technology.
  5. Educate tour, investigate and search for skilled people.

The relation between skilled manpower and employment opportunity

Well-educated, dedicated, and skilled individuals easily get employment opportunities. The country aims to citizens to make them educated and skilled so they get employment opportunities. Educational institutions and training centers supply the country with skilled manpower according to the market demand, and the country's skilled manpower requirement. The skilled manpower not only seeks employment but also creates entrepreneurial independent opportunities. The country has to create opportunities for skilled manpower to work or self-employ them to utilize their skills. Only then is it possible for a country to develop? It is always better if an individual can utilize their skills in the country itself, rather than search for opportunities abroad.

 Development Proposal Formulated in the Local Level           

Development is always planned. It is the first condition for effective planning and development. The local and national-level action plan is developed after planning. Development planning is also a skill. Formulating a plan for the appropriate use of available resources and means to fulfill certain objectives in the specified period is called Development Proposal Formulation. What is done in this? Why is it done? Who does it? How is it done? Where is it done? When is it done? The answer to these questions is presented in the proposal. The preparation of these development plans is also said to be the first step in the development process.

The countries that have adopted federalism or decentralized government assign the local level offices to freely formulate and implement the development plans. The use of local means and resources, decisions on development works, and conduction of those works are given to the local offices. Consumer groups are created in the local community to include the locals in the development works. The local level development works are done by those consumer groups. Before formulating development plans requirements need to be assessed and selected, planned, investment selected, involvement decided, and means and resources availability checked. The proposed plans are then decided upon and then the development work is started.

Local-level proposals formulation steps:

  1. Need identification – There can be many needs at the local level i.e. schools, building materials, road construction, forest conservation, etc.
  2. Alternative selection – Select an alternative depending on primary needs
  3. Proposal preparation – Identification, goals, affected areas and family numbers, investment, manpower, workspace, start date, means and resources, implementation, profits, members, minute details that are to be presented in governmental office, etc.
  4. Investment source details – a budget that is being given by the local government and amount that is raised from the consumers.
  5. Deals – The local consumer committees and local bodies’ representatives sign an agreement with the terms and approval for the work.
  6. Implementation – Construction work conduction
  7. Overview and evaluation - Overseeing the work of local stakeholders, progress observation, monitoring of the overall program.

Local-level proposal formulation process:

  • Establish Relationship – Establish relations by conducting meetings with personnel related to the planning and consumer groups.
  • Situation Study – Study is done to find the area that will be affected by the plan, livelihood of the local people, and natural resources and means available.
  • Prioritization for problems – Listing out the appropriate investment needs, estimated results, means, and resources, concerned parties, suggestions, solutions, etc. is done and prioritized.
  • Agreement and Contract – The community ownership plan, contributions, sharing, responsibility, work projects are mentioned and the agreement and contracts are made.
  • Documentation and presentation – The planning process, result forecast, monitoring mechanisms, etc. are mentioned and the final plan is documented.

Plan Implementation Steps:

  1. Citizen’s meeting
  2. Plan collection with the local involvement
  3. Budget
  4. The proposal in the local government
  5. Formation of consumer groups
  6. Plan implementation agreement
  7. Documentation and economic management after planning
  8. Certifying the consumer groups and thanking them.

Contemporary Development Goals and Nepal

The UN General Assembly of 1990 formulated the goals for Eradication of Poverty. In September of 2000, the Millennium Development Goals was announced. This paved the way for developing countries to eradicate economic and human poverty. It listed the 8 goals and 21 points that needed to be done from 1990 to 2015. 189 countries along with Nepal signed the paper.

Millennium development goals and Nepal’s achievement

millennium goals

Sustainable Development Goals

Sustainable development goals have been a topic of discussion for more than two decades. Its official beginning has been since June 2012 in Rio De Janerio and September 2014 in UN General Assembly. The millennial goals ended in 2015 and this has been the plan from 2015 to 2030. The 2015 September assembly accepted the goals and put them into work. There are still missing some index points and program plans. There are 17 goals and 169 destination points declared up to this point in time.

Nepal has the goal of improving its rank from developing nations to an upper level. These goals are very vast, with great expectations and very demanding which requires much means and resources. By 2030, Nepal has goals to be an inclusive, peaceful country with an average income for its citizens.

Nepal’s Sustainable Development Goals

Nepal's sustainable goals

nepal sustainable goals

nepal sustainable goals