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Sewing and Knitting

Published by: BhumiRaj Timalsina

Published Date: 28 Jan 2022

Sewing and Knitting in Occupation Business and Technical Education in Grade-7, Reference Note

Stitch is the most fundamental element in sewing. Stitch refers to a single turn or loop of thread. There are two types of stitches.

  • Basic stitch
  • Decorative stitch

Decorative Stitch

A decorative stitch is the series of stitch with decorative function. It is used for adding beauty and decoration in the cloth. The following are some of the decorative stitches.

  • Cross stitch
  • Blanket stitch
  • Satin stitch
  • Chain stitch
  • Lazy-dazy stitch

i) Cross stitch– It is one of the most popular as well as the oldest type of decorative stitch. In the cross stitch, the stitch is made in x or + shaped. The cross stitch is used in the decoration of tables covers, pillow covers, etc.

Preparation method

A basic cross stitch is made by bringing the needle out at 2 with the insertion at 1 and repeating the process again that is inserting at 3 and bringing out at 4.

ii) Blanket stitch – Blanket stitch is the stitch that is used in reinforcing of the edge of thick materials like the blankets, towels, sweaters etc. We can see blanket stitch on both sides of blankets and towels.

Preparation method

  • Insert the needle where one wants the bottom of the blanket stitch to be and pull it through the fabric.
  • Reinsert the needle up and right of the current position.
  • Now, make sure the needle re-emerge so that it lines up with where the needle was kept previously. Take the needle down right next to the curve of the last stitch.
  • Don’t forget to knot on the backside.

iii) Satin stitch – Satin stitch is also damask stitch. It is a series of flat stitches that completely covers a section of the background fabric. This kind of decorative stitches is used for creating a beautiful design in broader clothes. Using satin stitch, we can create any kind of designs like flowers, fishes etc.

Different types of satin stitches are:

  • Brick stitch
  • Padded satin stitch
  • Bourdon stitch
  • Long and short stitch
  • Encroaching satin stitch

Preparation method

  • Prepare horizontal stitches and vertical stitches one over another and repeat the process.

iv) Chain stitch - It is one of the oldest decorative stitches. One can use chain stitches in creating a variety of beautiful works to the monotonous even line.

v ) Lazy-dazy stitches – Lazy-dazy stitch is used for making embroidered flowers and other embroidery design on crocheted and knitted items. It is the common name for the detached chain stitch.



A Handkerchief (kerchief or hanky) is a small folded square of clothes carried in the pocket or purse for cleanliness purposes. Handkerchiefs are generally made of cotton or cotton/linen blend. The major utility of handkerchief lies in the cleanliness of body. Hence, in every individual life, the handkerchief is an integral component.

Materials required for making handkerchief:

  • Piece of cloth
  • Coloured threads
  • Needle
  • Scissors
  • Carbon paper
  • Pin
  • Pencil
  • Tracing paper
  • Laces
  • Frame of decoration
  • Tailoring chalk

Handkerchief is found in three sizes:

  • 12 cm x 12 cm
  • 18 cm x 18 cm
  • 30cm x 30 cm

Preparation method

  • Cut the cotton cloth into appropriate size of choice
  • The edge of the handkerchief has to be folded and sewed in the machine.
  • Stretch the cloth in a ring frame firmly to introduce attractive border or embroidery.
  • At first, mark the design and make attractive border or embroidery by appropriate stitching method.
  • Iron it to remove the wrinkle after finishing embroidery works.

Introduction to Hosiery items

Hosiery items are prepared by knitting method. The knitting technique is a method by which yarn is manipulated to create a textile or fabric. It creates multiple loops of yarn, called stitches in a line. In this method, single thread or yarn is used to make dresses such as caps, sweaters, mufflers, shawls, gloves, etc. Knitting may be done by hand or by using a machine.

Simple weaving by hand loom

Weaving is the art in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced and the thread are called the warp and weft. They are interlaced with each other at right angles to form a fabric or cloth. The method by which these threads cross each other determines the textural design of the woven cloth.

A loom is a device used to weave cloth and a hand loom is a simple machine used for weaving. In wooden, vertical-shaft looms, the heddles are fixed in place on the shaft. This loom is powered by hand. The warp threads pass alternately through a heddle, and through a space between the heddles so that raising the shaft raises half the threads and lowering the shaft lowers the same threads and the threads passing through the spaces between the heddles remain in place.

Fabric painting

The word fabric refers to the weaved cloth. Fabric painting refers to a simple way that adds beauty to the clothes. It is the art of filling colour in the design created in fabric or cloth. Special types of colour are used in fabric painting. Slowly, the art of commercial fabric painting is getting prominent in Nepal. One can create fabric painting in any kind of clothes. For example, handkerchiefs, bed set, pillow covers, tv covers, sofa covers, t-shirts, salwar suits, saris etc.

Material required

The major materials that are essential in the process of fabric painting are enlisted below:

  • Clothes
  • Cardboards
  • Various kind of colours
  • Brushes with different shapes and sizes
  • Design book
  • Carbon papers
  • Water
  • Cups
  • Pins

Methods of fabric painting in a piece of fabric

Material required

  • Fabric of proper size
  • Paints
  • Design book
  • Rings


  • Take a piece of fabric.
  • Decide the design from the design book and trace its pattern in the fabric.
  • You can also put your own design.
  • Put in the fabric and draw an outline of design using a thin brush. Make it sure you can use the proper colour.
  • Dampen the area to be painted.
  • Now, fill the colour using the thick brush.
  • If shading is required, use another brush.
  • Let it dry for 24 to 72 hours.